jueves, 26 de diciembre de 2013

Polynesian, Amerindian Israelites, Papuas & other Melanesians 1

It's interesting that as the Israelite Scythians made Kurgans (mounds)  so did some Israelite Amerindians with the celebrated Hopewell mounds of Ohio,  USA. Lost Civilizations suggests that the presence of a mtDNA lineage known as "haplogroup X" in the Hopewell population is evidence of a pre-Columbian migration of Israelites to the Americas because haplogroup X originated in the "hills of Galilee" in Israel and began to disperse out of the Middle East approximately two thousand years ago. Joseph Smith, the Mormon prophet, believed these mounds had Israelite origins.

Many Christian missionaries regarded the Polynesians as descendants of the lost tribes of Israel.
Recent maternal mitochondrial DNA analysis suggests that Polynesians, including Samoans, Tongans, Niueans, Cook Islanders, Tahitians, Hawaiians, Marquesans and Māori, are genetically linked to indigenous peoples of parts of Southeast Asia (Brunei, Cambodia, East Timor, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand & Vietnam) including those of Taiwanese aborigines.

Kanasta was the name of the Cherokees' "lost settlement". Kanasta's beginning in Kana is similar to Canaan. Settlement means something similar to land. So the "lost settlement of Kanasta" would be the "land of Canaan" that their ancestors, the Israelites had to lose or abandon.

It's interesting that Maman is an extended Jewish last name & Mamani is an extended Quechua Peruvian last name. The i in Semitic languages means of, from... so Mamani would mean ''from Maman'' as it would come from Hebrew.

The native North Americans, like the Jews, considered taboo certain animals, had a feeling for their individual purity, prayed to a great spirit called Yohovah, had high priests & performed puberty rituals. Moreover, they celebrated their main festivities on fall & spring, coinciding with Passover & the Feast of Tabernacles. They also fasted for two days right at the time of Yom Kippur, had a lunar calendar, a calculation system similar to the Jewish one & they had several linguistic commonalities with Hebrew. 


The Guaranis were deeply spiritual. Their revealed word was interpreted by the shamans. They believed in a Supreme being, creator of sky & earth. They called on him & regarded him a benevolent father. When their god was invoked illness & death were kept at bay & he brought harmony & peace. He gave man the hope to one day reach a land without bad, where he could have eternal happiness. The Guaranis were nomads (like the ancdient Israelites) looking for that lovely land (This resembles the Israelite goal to get into the Holy Land).
It has been found a Israelite (including sometimes Phoenician ones) remains from North America to South America.

The Cuzco Indians lapidated people for cause of adultery like the ancient Israelites. 

People believed that the original Hawaiians were not directly from Polynesia but from Asia (hence the names Hawa, Hiwa, Ulu, and Nana which have cognate names in Indonesia, Borneo, and India).

Salasaka (Ecuador)

Is the lake Makalehi in Indonesia related to Lehi of the Book of Mormon? The Polynesian islands are in the Pacific ocean not too far from Indonesia. Interesting the Polynesians are regarded as coming from Manassah through  Lehi & the Minahasa also are believed to come from Manassah.

The nobility and hereditary priesthood claimed to be of a different stock different from that of the common people, and their superior stature and intelligence seemed to favor the assumption.

The name of the island of Molokai could be related to the name Molucas and therefore Molok.

The Sac Indians could easily have their name from Isaac their ancestor.

It's remarkable that the Royal Tongan Coat of Arms has Stars of David.
Burping after eating  is a very spread trdition inthe Pacific Islands & among the Arabs. Is this because the Pacific Islanders (Polynesians)  are Semites (Israelites to be specific, as they claim) in origins like the Arabs?

Are Navajos (DiNe in their language) DaNites?

The aquiline nose of many Amerindians resembles that of the Jews. American Indians have lunar calendar like the Jews. The fringes that many Amerindian tribes wear on their clothes have to be based on the Jewish fringes. Are the Amerindian tipis or teepees based on the Israelite Sukkah? As seen in movies, the ancient North Americans had a deep love for their ancestors.

The ancient Mexicans had also such a deep love for their ancestors that they went to the pagan extreme of worshipping the dead.
Nowadays what most of the world calls Halloween (All Hallows' Eve) they call it Noche de Difuntos (Deceast's Night). Inthis night they have suppers in graveyards with their deceast & lit candles. This great love for their ancestors could be explained by their claim of Israelite ancestry.

Cherokee brothers in arms liberated Dachau.


The name Meshiah, meaning anointed, can be also Meshiach, Mashiah, Mashiach, Moshiah or Moshiach. It was a title given to priests & kings because they were anointed with holy anointing oil as Exodus 30: 22-25 says. In the Book of Mormon there are two kings with this name. Every Mosiah of these two kings were righteous kings.

It's remarkable that one of the most celebrated Maori chiefs (and several tribes) was named Kati. There was also a toponym called Katiki, having the same root. It's interesting because Kati is the very name of a Jewish Berber tribe, the Ka'ti, whose origins are in the Kehat Levitic tribe (Kati is a name of different Israelite groups). It's also noteworthy the high esteem proffessed by the Maoris for their priests just as the ancient Israelites. That the Maoris didn't believe in a god of love as in the New Testament, but in one of fear as in the Old Testament makes likelier for them to have Israelite origins.

There's a personage in the Book of Mormon named Sam. This name has Semitic origin & is regarded to be another version of the name Shem or Sem. It's found in in eastern Asia & it might be the origin of the name of the Pacific Islander country of Samoa. So this, with the fact that Samoans circumcise in the 8th day like the Jews, might prove the Israelite origin of Samoans. In Burkina Faso, Benin & Iran there are toponyms with this name. The Sami people or Lapons are considered to have Israelite origin & also bear this name as part of their own name. In Hebrew can mean "God has heard". Shem (The eldest son of Noah, from whom the Jews, as well as the Semitic ("Shemitic") nations in general have descended. ), though generally regarded as meaning "dusky" (compare the Assyr-Babylonian samu--also Ham--possibly = "black," Japheth, "fair"), it is considered possible that Shem may be the usual Hebrew word for "name" (shem), given him because he was the firstborn--a parallel to the Assyr-Babylonian usage, in which "son," "name" (sumu) are synonyms.

Terms repeted in the new world: PaRá, PeRú, PaRaná, PaRaguay, paraGUAY, GUAYAs, GUAYAna, GUAYAquil, haWAii, uruGUAY, GUAYabo, GUAYabal, GUAmán, arahuaco, araucano, arauCaNo,

As the Israelites counted in moons, instead of in days, so did the Lamanites (Amerindians). Other claiming Israelites did the same. It's not a coincidence.

Is MiNneSota a MaNaSehite name? How'bout SaVannah & SaBa (Caribbean) coming from the celebrated queen of SaBa or SheBa, a queen that met king Solomon?

Is the poncho an evolved clothe of the sacred Israelite Tallits? Mexican tortillas, Colombian arepas, Salvadorean pupusas... are somehow kinds of bread that native Americans use to make. They don't contain yeast. Does it come from the Jewish matza? 

Is there anything in common between the pyramids in Egypt & the pyramids in the Americas? Where the ancient Americans the offspring of Egyptians or of people living among them (Israelites)?

There's a little town in Ecuador called Otavalo. The majority of Otavaleños are native Andean Indians, so from now long I'll call these Amerindians "Otavaleños". These people have certain interesting traditions that I'll mention, not exhaustively though. Otavaleños are an entrepeneurial people. They aare found everywhere in fairs & markets, selling their handcraft, playing music... You don't only find them in Spanish speaking countries, but in the USA, Germany... 
There's an Ecuadorean large diaspora, but it's very concentrated in a few countries, contrary to their fellow Ecuatorians from Otavalo that much more dispersed. The entrepeneurial spirit of Otavaleños, together with their large dispersion resembles the Jewish character. They also have something else in common with them. Male Otavaleños are forbidden or discouraged to cut their hair just as ancient Jewish Nazareans. Samson is an example of an Israelite that was forbidden to cut his hair. Once his hair was cut he lost his superpowers strength. Orthodox Jews & ancient Israelites grow & grew sidelocks known as peyot. Is the Otavaleños male long hair related to any of these two traditions?

Some people believe Eskimos (Inuits) in Canada & Alaska, United States, Polynesians in United States, Micronesia, Kiribati, Kiribati, Polynesian-Maori in New Zealand have Israelite origin.

It's noteworthy the use by both Jews & American Indians of the lunar calendar.

Is the name of the river Moche, near Trujillo, Peru, a corrupted way of Moshe (Moses in Hebrew), the great prophet that took the Israelites out of Egypt?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Is it a coincidence that the flag of México has an eagle grabbing a snake with her claws like the symbol of Dan? 
“A Nation Now Extinct,” American Indian Origin Theories

The anthropological study of the American native peoples has for centuries proved a daunting and most controversial enterprise, and the arguments still continue.The first purpose of this paper is to trace and comment on the leading interpretations of the provenance of the aboriginal peoples of the Western Hemisphere from shortly after Christopher Columbus down tothe time of the translation of the Book of Mormon, a period of over three hundred years.

As far as we know, neither Columbus nor Vespucci ever speculated on the origins of the people sthey discovered. Probably the first to do so was Pedro Mártir de Anglería, whose highly popular Décadas del Nuevo Mundo was first published in 1511. Basing his chronologies and narratives on first hand reports from returning conquistadores, he speculated that at least some of the Native Americans were Scythians from northeast Asia who had somehow anciently come over to the Americas, thereby giving rise to one of the most enduring of all origin theories.

 The most popular early explanations were somevariant of the so called Atlantis theory in which ancient Middle Eastern and African peoples and animals had migrated to the west either by land via the ancient lost continent of Atlantis or by dint of their navigational prowess. The legend of Atlantis, of there having been an advanced civilization on a giant island in the Atlantic Ocean, is said to have been taught by Plato and Aristotle. This massive, now sunken continent, extending from the Canary Islands west to the Americas, purportedly served as a land bridge for the earliest populations of the Americas. Though discredited by most careful observers as early as 1600, the lost continent theory has lived on in folklore and superstition, most recently popularized in the nineteenth century writings of Charles Stephen Brasseur de Bourbourg and Ignatius Donnelly.

A slightly more credible and enduring version of the Atlantis theory is the Carthaginian, or Phoenician, theory, which put sufficient stock in the navigational abilities of the ancient Carthaginians of North Africa and in the Phoenicians to have found, by crossing the Atlantic in sailing ships, the New World. Other sideline explanations included the Canaanite, Ophirian, and Welsh theories

Bernard Romans, a British cartographer who traveled extensively among the Seminole tribes in Florida, wrote that God “created an original man and woman in this part of the globe, of different species from any in the other parts.”  In America, perhaps the latest and most revered defender of thetheory was Benjamin Smith Barton (1766–1815), who argued that certainly the animals of the New World were of a separate creation than those of the Old, thatit was “highly probable” that there was a “separate creation in the old and in the new world,” and that the Old World languages descended from those in the New World.

By contrast, arguably the earliest and surely the most popular and doggedly persistent of all the traditions was the belief that the Native Americans had originated from the lost ten tribes of Israel. Having been forced out of Palestine into parts of the Assyrian empire by King Shalmaneser in the first half of the eighth century bc, remnants of these Israelites, or Hebrew peoples, so the theory argues, eventually made their way over land and sea to the New World.

Several Spanish friars working in Mexico—including Juan Suárez de Peralta,Diego Durán, and Juan de Tovar—arrived at the same conclusion

What did rekindle interest was a confluence of factors, including an unsubstantiated rumor of the finding ofan ancient Jewish people in Peru, early attempts atChristianizing Indian tribes in the American colonies, and a campaign to readmit Jews into Great Britain.

The rumor was the marvelous tale of a PortugueseJew, Antonio Montesinos, who claimed he had beenled of God to discover a “Holy People”—a tribe ofancient Jews—in the mountains of Nueva Granada in1641. Basing his claim on similarities of sacramentalrites, customs, and language between this group andthose of ancient Jews, Montesinos caused a flurryof new interest in the theory in Amsterdam and inLondon. Many turned to one of the few respected Jewish scholars of the day, Rabbi Manasseh ben Israel (a man who knew nine different languages), to confirm or reject Montesinos. Sensing his opportunity toa dvance the cause of his people, Manasseh ben Israel published in 1650 his famous Hope of Israel in which he strongly argued in favor of the lost tribes in America,claiming that they had mingled with Tartaric or Asiantribes in ancient Scythia before coming to America.Presenting remarkably little hard or new evidence, he nevertheless capitalized upon the renewed controversy to show that God’s ancient people, the Jews,had indeed been scattered and dispersed to the four quarters of the earth. Recognizing that only England and a few other countries continued to restrict the entry of the Jews, he suggested that if England would allow for Jewish emigration, the second coming ofChrist would become imminent. 18 Simultaneously, the Reverend Thomas Thorowgood published his Jewes in America; or, Probabilities that the Americans Are of That Race, arguing in like manner that native myths and similarities in customs,rites, and speech all supported Montesinos’s interpretations. 19 The writings of ben Israel, Thorowgood, and John Eliot, the early Massachusetts missionary and so-called apostle to the Indians, 20 struck areceptive chord in an England then beset with premillennialist fervor. Such discourse eventually led to a policy change under King Charles II, allowing for there entry of Jews to the British Isles after an absence ofsome five hundred years.

The lost tribes theory gained little traction among serious European scholars, who viewed it as a thinly disguised religiousand political argument devoid of careful consideration and reasoning. Writing in 1651, Hamon L’Estrangesaw evidence that the Indians had come to the Westlong before the lost tribes. And Gottlieb Spitzel wroteso “thorough a denunciation” of it in 1661 that many thought it finally dead and buried. John Ogilby, John Josselyn, and others followed suit. 21 Support for the tradition, however, flowered inearly America, where several leading colonists subscribed to it, including Roger Williams and William Penn. This interest no doubt derived from constant American contact with the various tribes. Basing hisviews on similar physiologies, sacred rites, and ceremonies, Penn wrote in 1683: “I am ready to believe them of the Jewish Race, I mean of the stock of theTen Tribes.” 22 By far the most persuasive of all Americans to defend the lost tribes theory was the historian and anthropologist James Adair, who, following thetradition of the great French Canadian mission-ary Pierre-François Charlevoix, 23 spent forty yearsamong the American Indians. In his History of the American Indians (1775), Adair was perhaps the first to argue less on biblical grounds and more on a scientific basis that the Indians had originated from Jewish stock.

Adair carefully observed Indian cultures:their rites, festivals, and religious ceremonies; their monotheistic belief in the one god of the Great Spirit;their reckoning of time; their traditions of sacred men and prophets; their Levirate marriages; their anointings and purification ceremonies; and other practices and beliefs. His thorough anthropological observations, systematic research, and comparative analyses were certainly impressive, even if later scholars disagreed with him. Adair infused the lost tribes theory with a scientific foundation

Cook and Vancouver, as well as other Pacific explorers, “were much struck,” on coming in contact with the Indians, with the similarities between some features of their culture and those of the Maori of New Zealand. As Roland Dixon has argued: “Thes olidly constructed plank houses with their elaborately carved and painted decorations, the forts, the finely woven mantles, the short bone and stone clubs, recalled to their minds similar objects among the Maori, and led them to speculate as to the possibility of some relationships between the two groupsof people.”

Mitchill believed that both North and South America had been formerly populated fundamentally by twogreat races, not only the “hyperborean or inhabitants of the north” but also the “australasian, or inhabitants of the south,” the former Tartars and the latter Malays and Polynesians. A prominent member of the American Philosophical and American Antiquarian Societies, Mitchill—though not the firstto propose such a dualistic Asiatic origination ofAmerican peoples (Humboldt had given broad provision for such a view, as had de Laet)—was certainly very much in the vanguard of such a viewpoint and was clearly the first American scholar to do so insuch a systematic fashion. As to the Tartars (or eastern Asians, includingthe Chinese) being the ancient ancestors of the more northerly tribes of North American Indians, Mitchillbased his claim on four considerations: (1) the simi-larity of physiognomy and features; (2) the affinityof their languages, as so well argued by his contemporary Professor Barton; (3) corresponding customssuch as smoking of the pipe; and (4) the kindrednature of American Indian dogs to those found inSiberia.In regards to the Malays, he based his conclusions on several mummies he and others hadrecently discovered in limestone caves in Kentuckyand Tennessee. He argued that the fabrics of cloth wrapping, the shawls, and the feathered plumes attending them were “perfectly analogous” to those found in the islands of the Pacific that had been sentto him by American sea captains and explorers overthe years. In addition, he based his conclusions onthe similarities of the net meshes, the bark con-struction of moccasins, the fortifications and other works of defense in the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys compared to the “hippas or fighting stages of the Society islands,” and the shape of the skull in the mummies corresponding with those of theMalays. By 1816 he was arguing that “the coloniesof Malayan emigrants who people South and North America as far as Mexico, formerly possessed thefertile region east of the Mississippi and quite to the shores of Ontario. They were the constructors of the fortifications so much admired.”  In addition, Mitchill allowed for the settlement of northeast North America by emigrants fromLapland, Norway, Finland, and even Wales. In thisview he was not alone. Hugh Williamson, a con-temporary, had argued for much the same thing.“Some of the Northern Indians,” he said, “emigrated from Europe. It can hardly be questioned that theEsquimaux Indians are the diminutive sprouts of Norwegian ancestors.” Williamson also gave place for the possibility that some natives came from Indiavia the islands of the Pacific. Mitchill, however,believed they never penetrated much further south than the St. Lawrence River valley.

John D. Lang, well-known British missionary to the South Seas, arguedin 1834 that the South Sea Islanders derived originally from Asia, including India, and that the Malayan race was an “amphibious nation” that, driven from islandto island, hopscotched their way across the Pacific, eventually peopling Mexico and Peru. Basing his argu-ments on similarities of tribal government, propertyrights, handcrafts, theologies, and architecture, he maintained that “there is abundant reason to believe that America was originally peopled from the conti-nent of Asia; not, as is generally supposed, by way of the Aleutian Islands at the entrance of Behring’sStraits, but by way of the South Sea Islands and acrossthe widest part of the Pacific Ocean.” These people landed on the west coast “somewhere near the isthmus of Panama” approximately 1500 bc; rather than being exterminated, their immediate descendants,traveling northward and southward, “formed powerful and flourishing empires in both continents, farsurpassing in point of civilization the more recentempires of Montezuma and of the Incas of Peru.”

John Delafield, based on his study of philology,echoed Mitchill when he wrote in 1839 that therewere “two distinct races” in the Americas—“one civi-lized, comprehending the Mexicans and Peruvians,”and the other “savage and nomadic, embracing all thefamilies of the North American Indians.”

Marcius Willson wrote that while many came over the Bering Strait, “thereis no improbability that the early Asiatics reachedthe western shores of America through the islandsof the Pacific.” 65 E. M. Ruttenber, in his 1872 Historyof the Indian Tribes of Hudson’s River, quoted Mitchill at length. 66 As late as 1933 Professor Clark Wissler inhis ethnological studies of the American aborigines credited Mitchill for being among the first to arguet hat even the Aztecs were Malayan.

Although the Book of Mormon speaks of theseed or tribe of Joseph through Lehi and Manassehsettling somewhere in the ancient Americas, it is notsynonymous with the lost tribes of Israel theory.Nowhere does the book purport to be a history ofthe lost tribes leaving from ancient Assyria to the Americas. Rather, it speaks of a branch of Israel—ofthe coming of the seed of Joseph—to the WesternHemisphere. Other parts of the Book of Mormon,particularly the book of Ether, are of pre-Israelitederivation and migration. How much Harris knewof either of these peoples and their accounts in 1828,a year before the translation and publication of theBook of Mormon as we now know it, is yet unknown.But that he did speak to Mitchill of ancient Americanpeoples, of the extinction of one by the other, and of the continuation of one such people down to latertimes seems now most plausible.

Hopis & Snakes

The Snake Dance has both attracted and repulsed non-Indian spectators since the late nineteenth century.

During this infamous ritual performed every other August on the Hopi Mesas of Arizona, participants handle a mass of venomous and non-venomous snakes. Some even put necks and bodies into their mouths.


Unlike ophiolatry (serpent worship), the Snake Dance is a plea for agricultural fertility and rain in a beautiful but harsh desert landscape.
Olive Rush "Hopi Snake Dance" (1925, oil on board). Univeristy of Michigan

The ancestral Hopi escaped on reed rafts and made their way to the mouth of the Colorado River, up which they traveled to seek their final destination upon the Colorado Plateau.

A stepping stone on this monumental journey may have been the remote South Pacific island of Fiji. Here a fertility and youth initiation ceremony called Baki took place. Its name is similar to the Hopi term paki, which means “entered” or “started being initiated.” (Hopi language does not recognize the ‘b’ sound.)

The kiva (subterranean prayer chamber) used during the Snake Dance is called a pakit.


A “naga” or “nanaga” was one of many walled sites where Fiji boys entered manhood.

“...one of the ancient races of Southeast Asia is the Nagas, a seafaring race of people who traded in their ‘Serpent Boats’ similar to the Dragon ships of the Vikings.” (Serpent worship was practiced by Israelites & Amerindians, Polynesians & Vikings are considered as Israelites by different people).
 
Originating in India, the Nagas established religious centers throughout the country, including the Kingdom of Kashi on the Ganges, Kashmir to the north, and Nagpur in central India (Kashmiris are Israelites).

The Nagas also inhabited the great metropolitan centers of Mohenjo-Daro and Harrappa in the Indus River Valley. They founded a port city on the Arabian Sea and exchanged goods globally, using a universal currency of cowries. 

Related to Naga, the Hopi word nga’at means “medicine root” with magical healing properties (this is also the  meaning given to snakes in pharmacology as in Israel Moses put a brass serpent on a stick so that the Israelites would heal at looking at her). A root is both chthonic and morphologically snake-like. The term nakwa refers to headdress feathers worn during a sacred ceremony.. This plumage suggests the feathered serpent (a representation of quetzalqueatl, the white Aztec god). Another related word, naqvu’at, means “ear,” and naaqa refers to “ear pendant,” frequently made of abalone.


This jewelry was worn in respectful imitation rather than mere adornment.

Childress describes the so-called Long Ears:

“As tall, bearded navigators of the world, they were probably a combination of Egyptian, Libyan, Phoenician, Ethiopian, Greek and Celtic sailors in combination with Indo-Europeans from the Indian subcontinent.

According to Polynesian legend, these sailors also have the famous ‘long ears’ that are well known on both Rapa Nui [Easter Island] and Rarotonga.”

According to the mariner/scholar Thor Heyerdahl, ruling families of the Incas artificially lengthened their earlobes to distinguish themselves vis-à-vis their subjects. (An earmark indeed! Perhaps Buddha with his long earlobes is no coincidence either.)


Author James Bailey believes that these rulers of Peru and some Pacific islands were Aryan and Semitic peoples. “[Heyerdahl] showed that there lived on Easter Island the survivors of two distinct populations; the long-ears, a fair or red-headed European people (Israelites I would say) who used to stretch their ear-lobes with wooden plugs so that they reached down to their shoulders and a Polynesian group of conventional Polynesian type, with natural ears.

The first people had been known on the island as ‘long ears’, the second people as ‘short-ears’.” 9.


The former group attained an average height of six-and-a-half feet, and had white skin with red hair. It may be more than coincidence that the Hopi Fire Clan were known as the “redheads.” These war-like people lived with the Snake Clan at Betatakin, a late thirteenth century Arizona cliff dwelling (now in Navaho National Monument).Easter Island may have been another stepping stone in the ancient Hopi migration. Some of the tall, long-eared statues called Moai were carved with red topknots. That Easter Island lies on the same meridian as the current home of the Hopi may be just another “coincidence.”



Noting the ear-plugs worn by tribes in Tanzania, Bailey comments on the ubiquity of this artifact: “The ear-plug is itself symptomatic of contact with sea-people and I believe has a common origin all over the world, wherever it is found.” 10. One example of this ring-type ear-plug carved from schist was found in ancient ruins near Phoenix, Arizona. 11. Here we see artifacts common to both desert and maritime people.



Mythological themes common to disparate cultures also exist. Scholar Cyrus H. Gordon relates a narrative from the early second millennium B.C. An Egyptian captain is ship-wrecked on the “island of Ka,” possibly located near Somalia in the Indian Ocean. (The Hopi ka in kachina is foreign and may be related to the Egyptian Ka, or “doppelgänger.”)

This paradise abounds in not only gorgeous birds but also fish, delicious fruits and vegetables. There’s only one catch. A serpent thirty cubits (forty-five feet) long rules it. This giant snake has gold plated skin, lapis lazuli eyebrows, and a beard extending two cubits (three feet).


After the sovereign serpent threatens to incinerate him for remaining silent, the captain relates how he and his crew were driven there by a fierce storm. In turn, the king describes his brethren and children, who once totaled seventy-two.
“Then a star fell and these (serpents) went forth in the flame it produced. It chanced I was not with them when they were burned. I was not among them (but) I just about died for them, when I found them as one corpse.”
Before allowing him to leave, the king makes this curious remark: “It will happen that when you depart from this place, this island will never be seen again, for it will become water.”


Whether or not he had long ears, the tale does not say. However, we may be witnessing one of the legendary Nagas. Beside the serpentine motif, this fabulous story contains a theme redolent of Atlantis or Mu. An Edenic island suddenly disappears beneath the waves in a celestial cataclysm destroying many lives.



Does the Hopi myth of Tiyo’s journey to the Island of Snakes and the Egyptian myth of the anonymous captain’s journey to the Island of Ka have a common source? We will never know for certain.

The collective ingenuity of the peoples of North and South America together with the peoples of Oceania allowed them to sail to distant lands very early on.

Likewise, the peoples of Europe and Asia used the same ingenuity to land on equally distant shores. The navigational knowledge of seafarers from all over the globe must have been a common currency.

Lands of the Dispersion: Central and South America

Nephi states that his father was a descendant of Joseph. Latter-day revelation has clarified that the Nephites and Lamanites are primarily descended from Joseph’s son Manassah, with some intermixing with the tribe of Judah (Mulekites). It is sufficiently clear that with the possible exception of the Eskimos, who may be of Siberian origin, the indigenous peoples of North and South America and of the Hawaiian and Polynesian Islands, are descendants of Lehi. Early church leaders taught that the Nephite and Lamanite civilizations were spread on a large scale on the whole of the American continents. Joseph Smith provides clear evidence or archeological finds, catacombs in the Midwest. Church history cites that Farmers around the Hill Cumorah for years found large numbers of arrow-heads in the area where the final battle between the Nephites and Lamanites was fought. Numerous prophets have made the descent of the indigenous peoples of Central and South America from Father Lehi very clear:

‘We are particularly mindful this day of the sons and daughters of Lehi. They have known so much of suffering and sorrow in their many generations. They have walked in darkness and servitude. Now Thou has touched them by the light of the everlasting gospel.’

The Samoans Are Israelites

There are two different colors in the Pacific, the dark Melanesians and the brown Polynesians.

There are scientific evidences that show the (Lapita???) civilization was a civilisation that preceded the Polynesians and Melanesians so there are still unanswered questions.

Here is what is so unique about the Samoans: there's no evidence whatsoever that the ancient Samoans used idols like many other cultures in the Pacific as a source of divine inspiration.

SOLOMON'S FLEET MYSTERY: Evidence of Phoenician voyages into the South Pacific

Mount Moehau, on New Zealand’s Coromandel Peninsula, plunges steeply into the sea. Draped in subtropical rain forest, downcut by waterfalls and precipitous gorges, the region oozes mystery and enchantment.

Here, says Maori legend, the Turehu people, light-skinned, with reddish hair, made their last stand. 1 The Maoris say they found them in parts of New Zealand. As the Maori encroached, the Turehu retreated further into the hills, particularly of the Coromandel Peninsula. Here the mountains of Moehau, steep and remote, became their final refuge. Since they sought concealment near the misty summit of Moehau, the Turehu were sometimes spoken of as the "Mist People". Their voices and the ghostly piping of their flutes could often be heard in the dense forest. Huge gourds they grew. They built forts from interlaced supplejack, a long thick woody vine that trailed across the tall forest trees.

According to other Pacific islanders, people answering the same physical description had come from the east — from the direction of South America — long, long ago.

In South America I ran into similar traditions of a light-skinned, red-haired, blue-eyed race. According to legends, these people had settled and built cyclopean stone cities (whose ruins survive), but following a war had fled westward across the Pacific.

Around the fifteenth century BC, two powers were taking possession of the land on the eastern Mediterranean coast. About the same time as the Hebrew (Israelite) nation was coming into Palestine, another power was being established on the sea coast adjacent to the north.

It was the destiny of Phoenicia that she should become to the ancient world in material things, what the Hebrew had become in spiritual things. Both of them combined formed the Israelites & the kingdom of Solomon.

Phoenicia was the great manufacturing nation of the ancient world. Her dyed textiles, glass technology, superb stonework, ceramics and gem engraving were unsurpassed.

Indeed, L.A. Waddell asserts that the Phoenicians "had a civilization equal or superior to that of Egypt, in taste and skill.., luxury far beyond that of the Egyptians, and technical work which could teach them rather than be taught."

The city of Tyre was the London of antiquity, the center of a vast global trading network.
Mistress of the seas Phoenicia, sent ships to all ports and traversed all oceans. From the thirteenth century BC she was the dominant naval and commercial power. Her mercantile operations were enormous. This great naval power had the trade of the planet in her hands. She was a great distributing nation; her people were the carriers of the world.

The famous Indian epic, the Mahabharata, states that: The able Panch (Phoenicians) setting out to invade the Earth, brought the whole world under their sway.

They were termed "leaders of the Earth". And Phoenicia was, in the tenth to eleventh centuries BC, as great as Babylon or Egypt. The coasts and islands of the Mediterranean were rapidly covered with colonies. Today’s "Venice" preserves the ethnic title of "Phoenicia".

The Straits of Gibraltar were passed and cities built on the shores of the Atlantic. They founded Gades (Cádiz) on Spain’s west coast, 2,500 miles from Tyre, as the starting point for the Atlantic trade.

In the expanding range of their voyages, Phoenician ships out of Spain were battling the wild Atlantic en route to the tin of Cornwall and even to Norway (2,000 miles beyond Gades).

Eastward, there is evidence that Phoenicia built factories on the Persian Gulf and traded as far as Ceylon.

London founded
An interesting sideline concerns the founding of London. It has been adduced from substantial evidence that some 89 years after the fall of Troy (a Phoenician colony), Brutus, a descendant of the Trojan royalty, sailed up the River Thames in Britain and founded Tri-Novantum ("New Troy"). This ultimately became London.

Thus, contrary to popular misconception, there existed a highly civilized dynasty, which survived in Britain even until the Roman invasion. It left behind gold coins, at least one surviving stone inscription and a detailed chronology. Indeed, Julius Caesar and other contemporaries testified to its cultured, well-dressed city-dwelling subjects, though untamed tribes did flank the western and northern borders.

Researcher L.A. Waddell gives an authenticated unbroken chronology of highly civilized independent British kings reigning in London from Brutus (c. 1103 BC) to the Roman conquerors. There is evidence that a large proportion of the people of Britain are descendants of the sea-going Phoenicians.

Sophisticated Instruments
Phoenician ships probed ever further. Navigation across open ocean was no problem to these explorers. Due to the insufficient attention paid to this aspect of the subject, we have tended to belittle the size and sophistication of Phoenician shipping.

If we conceive of it as represented by types of marine craft as outlined on Phoenician coins and tombs, we shall not be able to suppose that the nation was ever employed on such voyages as those that shall shortly engage our attention.

There is evidence that they had the benefit of sophisticated instruments and large, fast, modern vessels carrying over 500 people. This will be a surprise to many readers.

"Ships of Tarshish"
The type of vessel built especially for ocean travel was designated "ship of Tarshish" to distinguish it from the smaller craft which merely plied the eastern Mediterranean.

The name of the original Tarshish (in Spain) became displaced as the horizon of the Phoenician navigators moved westward.

Herodotus records a Phoenician clockwise circumnavigation of Africa about 600 BC, on behalf of Pharaoh Necho — a distance of 13,000 miles. Herodotus sniffed at their report that the sun was on their right, that is, to their north.

This establishes the fact that Phoenician nautical prowess and daring was at a level not to be seen in modern times until the century of Columbus.

It is only due to the proud announcement of the Pharaoh who sponsored the trip that we know of this voyage. The Phoenicians were not publicists.

So what other trips were being made —from perhaps as early as 1200 BC? At La Venta, Mexico, was found a sculpture with distinctly Phoenician characteristics: bearded faces, upturned shoes, twisted rope borders and other details. It has been dated to around 850 BC. From Nicaragua to Mexico, on jade figurines, the backs of slate mirrors, funeral urns and other objects, appear bearded men who bear little resemblance to American Indians.

A well-known colony of Phoenicia was Carthage. An ancient historical work records the voyage of a convoy of as many as 60 ships, each carrying 550 people. This was around 500 BC.

Strabo writes that Phoenician colonies (300 colonies, he estimates) were planted prolifically well down the Atlantic coast of Africa.
From West Africa, it would be a simple matter to follow the trade winds to South America.

To some, the idea that ancient mariners would have known the Americas may appear too ridiculous to consider, and it will be cast aside. But before such actions are taken, surely the evidence for this position should be carefully considered.

As Michael G. Bradley aptly put it, "The truth is just now being glimpsed by a handful of specialists - it is still almost completely unsuspected by the average civilized citizen."

Voyages to the New World at around the time of King Solomon of Israel now seem more likely than not. Some twelve years’ research for the book Dead Men’s Secrets finally convinced me that these colonists of a forgotten age were indeed part of a great network of ancient civilizations that once maintained a flourishing trade between Europe, Asia, and the Americas, some 3,000 years ago.

I should not have been surprised to discover that Harvard professor Dr. Barry Fell, from his own research, had reached the same conclusion. He considered the ancient visitors to North America were probably not explorers, but rather merchants, trading with well-established fur trappers and very likely also mining precious metals on those sites where ancient workings have been discovered.
Fell states: Because of the depth of ignorance into which Europe fell during the Dark Ages, at times we are apt to forget how advanced were the ideas of the ancients, and how much they knew about the earth and about astronomy and navigation.

Fell is also convinced that "America shares a history with the Old World, and ancient Americans must have been well acquainted with much of that history as it took place."

Dr. Fell is now recognized as one of the world’s foremost epigraphers.

Phoenicians in America?
In 1780, on a rock on the shores of Mount Hope Bay in Bristol, Rhode Island, there was discovered an inscription, which Fell deciphered in 1975 to read:

VOYAGERS FROM TARSHISH THIS STONE PROCLAIMS

This suggests strongly that here on the eastern seaboard of North America there was once a port for "ships of Tarshish".

On the island of Hispaniola, Columbus discovered immense ancient mines. In Haiti, he thought he could trace furnaces in which gold had been refined.

Between 1850 and 1910, travelers in the Amazon region and other parts of Brazil were reporting the finding of old inscriptions on rock faces.

Former rubber tapper Bernardo da Silva Ramos, in a now rare book in Portuguese, has published 1,500 reproductions from such rock carvings. They are all covered over with the letters of the Phoenician alphabet.

Investigator Pierre Honore discussing the finds of other Brazilian travelers and explorers of last century, states: Today there is a whole library full of their reports; and they too were firmly convinced that the inscriptions were Phoenician texts. They were sure that King Solomon (975-935 BC) had once come to the Amazon with his ships; that the gold countries of Ophir, Tarshish and Parvaim were not to be looked for in the Old World at all, but here in the Amazon region on the Rio Solimoes, Solomon’s River. It is reported that in Havea, near Rio de Janeiro are letters several feet high inscribed upon a sheer cliff face in cuneiform.

The inscription reads:
BADEZIR OF THE PHOENICIAN TYRE. THE FIRST SON OF JETHBAAL (Jethbaal ruled Tyre from 887 to 856 BC.) In 1872, on the coast of Brazil near Paraiba, Joaquim Alves da Costa found on his property a stone that bore numerous characters which no one understood. He copied them and sent them to the President of the Instituto Historico. A translation is as follows:

We are Sidonian Canaanites from the city of the Merchant King. We were cast (2) up on this distant island, a land of mountains. We sacrificed a youth to the celestial gods (3) and goddesses in the nineteenth year of our mighty King Hiram (4) and embarked from Ezion-geber into the Red Sea. We voyaged with ten ships (5) and were at sea together for two years around Africa. Then we were separated (6) by the hand of Baal and were no longer with our companions. So we have come here, twelve (7) men and three women, into "Island of Iron". Am I, the Admiral, a man who would flee? (8) Nay! May the celestial gods and goddesses favor us well.

This eight-line inscription proved to be in Phoenician characters. There are reasons to believe that the king referred to was Hiram III (553-533 BC). Brazil was known, anciently, as Hy Brasil. The incorporation of ‘I’ or ‘Hy’ is typically Phoenician.

According to Cyrus Gordon, Head of the Department of Mediterranean studies at Brandeis University, Massachusetts, the Phoenicians certainly knew Brazil, which they called "Island of Iron". Hy Brasil means "Island of Iron". Iron is still the country’s main resource.

When I first learned of this inscription, I was skeptical. Mention of it was omitted from my book Dead Men’s Secrets, since I preferred to publish only discoveries which could be confirmed beyond doubt as genuine. Others also considered it to be a fraud.

As we noted, at the time the alleged inscription was found, the script was not known. No one other than the original translator could read it. That has now changed.

Significantly, it contains Phoenician idiosyncrasies that were unknown in 1872 but which are now authenticated by other inscriptions found since.

Concerning many such initially rejected finds, Barry Fell says: One by one competent scholars who hold responsible positions in universities and museums are now coming forward with confirmations of the decipherments.

Shipping routes westward at first
The trend of Phoenician colonial development prior to 1000 BC was mainly in a westerly direction.

However, it is quite certain that they did not long rest satisfied with that. With their overland routes to the east at risk from unrest in Babylonia, the Phoenicians gave careful attention to an alternative eastern route.

We know that Hiram I, king of Tyre, shared a friendship with Israel’s King David, and with his son Solomon. There was also a religious sympathy. These early Phoenicians — contrary to the now current notions of popular writers — were monotheists.

As a result of a commercial treaty, Hiram assisted in the erection of Solomon’s Temple and Israel granted Phoenicia the two ports of Eilat and Ezion-geber on the Gulf of Aqaba.

Like Gades in the west, the Persian Gulf colonies must now be viewed not as an end of Phoenician navigation in the east, but as the starting point for more distant navigation.

Fortunately, a mass of undigested historic data leaves no doubt concerning this fact.

King Solomon’s silver
We find that the ships employed in the prosecution of the silver trade in both easterly and westerly directions were now "ships of Tarshish".

Suddenly we find gold and silver in such abundance in Jerusalem that Solomon made silver to be in Jerusalem as stones… for abundance".

And why? "... for the king had at sea a navy of Tarshish with the navy of Hiram: once in three years came the navy of Tarshish, bringing gold and silver, ivory, and apes, and peacocks."

There can be no question that the peacocks came from South-East Asia. But whence the abundance of silver?

Says Heeren: Silver is also found in Siberia and in China or South Asia, but the large annual importation of the metal from Europe in consequence of the high price it bore in the East sufficiently prove that it was found there in small quantities. We may therefore conclude with certainty that the greater portion of the silver possessed of old by the Asiatic nations was imported, and there can be no question that the Phoenicians were the channel of importation.

Ultimate destination: Ophir The ultimate destination of the ships of Hiram and Solomon was a place or region called Ophir.

"And they came to Ophir," says the Scripture, "and fetched from thence gold." "And the navy also of Hiram, that brought gold from Ophir, brought in from Ophir great plenty of almug trees, and precious stones."

From the books of Genesis 23 and Josephus, it can be found that Ophir was the general name for the rich southern countries lying on the African, Arabian and Indian coasts.

But when we ask, where was that Ophir which could be reached from Ezion-geber that provided silver in such abundance, we are faced with a problem.

It can be shown that the source was not Asia, the greater portion of whose silver was imported.

Silver was so scarce in Arabia, that it was assessed at ten times the value of gold.
Yet in Solomon’s Jerusalem it became as common as stones. I am aware of the nineteenth century explorers’ tales that supposedly identified the mines of Ophir with central Africa. There are people who refuse to accept that the massive stone fortress known as the ruins of Zimbabwe (and situated in that country) could have been built by native Africans.

Such identification with King Solomon must be regarded as romantic fiction. Zimbabwe is AD not BC and almost certainly it is the work of a powerful indigenous African empire.

"Three year" voyages
That the expeditions pushed into regions much more distant than the Indian Ocean is apparent from the "three years" required for the double voyage, only nine months being required for a return journey to the extremities of Arabia.

Thomas Johnston suggests that Ophir "must be looked for in the farther East, and in a territory that was not only capable of supplying silver in practically unlimited quantities, but of affording conclusive evidence of occupancy by the Israelites and Phoenicians."

Johnston argues persuasively that the route of the expeditions can be traced beyond the peacock lands, through Indonesia, the Torres Strait (at the north of Australia), and via Samoa and Tahiti to Mexico and Peru. It appears that they founded colonies along the route.

An American destination accords well with the fact that the world’s largest silver deposits are in the Americas — in the United States, Mexico, Canada and Peru.

Reached from two directions
The Bible says that the distant land of Tarshish was rich in silver, iron, tin and lead. It could be reached from the Mediterranean port of Joppa (Jaffa), or the Red Sea port of Ezion-geber.

A glance at the map tells us that the only part of the world that one would reach by ship from either the Mediterranean or Red Sea ports is the Atlantic seaboard.

Cyrus Gordon of Brandeis University, Massachusetts, says that a text mentioning "gold of Ophir" found at Tell Qasile on the Mediterranean coast of Israel, suggests that Ophir could be reached via Gibraltar. I am aware that many places have been suggested as the location of Solomon’s fabled mines. New respect for the seagoing capabilities of early navigators makes the Americas a strong possibility.

"Ofir"
The Ugha Mongulala tribe of north-west Brazil preserve written records of an ancient city called Ofir (Ophir) which once stood at the mouth of the Amazon River.

This is the ONLY independent mention of a specific locality called Ophir, outside of the Bible. Could this be significant?

Their tradition states that: Lhasa, the prince of Akakor, commanded the construction of Ofir, a powerful harbor city at the mouth of the Great River [the Amazon]. Ships from Samon’s [Solomon’s?] empire docked there with their valuable cargoes. In exchange for gold and silver...

Perhaps, like that of Tarshish, the name Ophir became displaced, and as the trade of the Phoenicians moved further eastward and westward, it moved with the trade, until in course of time it came to be applied to a more distant region controlled by the Phoenicians.

Corroborating this, the Phoenician Ophir or Ofor means, in their ancient language, the Western Country.

And what land lay to the west? The Americas, no less.
Mixed crews While the expeditions were under Israelite and Phoenician direction, they undoubtedly carried crews and marine force of composite nationality, In the next chapter we shall touch on evidence suggesting that considerable numbers of Scythians and Thracians were employed on the Phoenician fleets. At this time in history Hebrew, Phoenician, Scythian and Thracian were the dominant factors in the national life of the eastern Mediterranean. The Thracians and Scythians were then the two great nations of south-eastern Europe.


Eastward
There must have been, from Ezion-geber, a general push of the giant "ships of Tarshish" toward the east. To control the South Arabian markets could not have been the sole purpose of Solomon building his great ships. If these ships had been merely constructed to trade with Yemen, and back, and if, as the Scripture says, the journey had taken three years, then Solomon and Hiram were inept investors. The cost of the ships, the expense of working them, the interest on capital for such a long interval, as well as the deterioration of cargo in such a climate, would have outweighed any advantage of using sea transport, as against an overland route.

Furthermore, it seems most unlikely that expeditions to a place as close as Yemen could have wakened such enthusiasm, as to have brought Solomon and his court from their safe capital into the heart of a discontented country to witness the departure of the ships and their crews, as 2 Chronicles 8:17 records.

If we continue the line to Java and Sumatra, we will have reached the native home of the peacock, which was collected on the return journey of Solomon’s and Hiram’s expeditions.

Penetrating beyond Indonesia, we shall discover some facts of a rather startling nature.
The "ships of Tarshish" encountered unknown perils as they ventured into new regions. One particularly dangerous passage was along the north-western coast of Australia.

Any mariner approaching the north-west coast of Australia could find the West Kimberley area near Derby one of the most dangerous on the coast. A violent rip runs up to ten knots and creates whirlpools. To come in at the entrance to King Sound, ships must run through this riptide. There are many reefs and shoals. Navigation is hazardous.

Around the entrance to King Sound lie the islands of the Buccaneer Archipelago. King Sound itself is about 90 miles long and at its widest about 35 miles across.

A feature of this area is the extreme rise and fall of tides: up to 35 feet, which leaves ships high and dry.

Here salvage diver Allan Robinson found what he believed to be the wreck of an ancient Phoenician ship. He noticed that in the mud of the swamp off the mainland, there was a strange shape. Small pips of mud seemed to project above the surroundings to form a shape more like a banana than a ship.

The contor was quite plain. A bronze plate was retrieved and declared by a university official to be of Phoenician origin.

The Phoenician wreck was near an overgrown mine of galena. And galena is an ore of silver, lead and zinc. It is not surprising that, if the ships of Solomon and Hiram came as far as Java and Sumatra (which, as we said, was the native home of the peacock — one item of Solomon’s cargo), that they would have found the nearby coast of Australia.

Their route would have taken them through Torres Strait. And, conceivably, they could have sailed down the eastern coast of Australia.

Should it surprise us, then, that Phoenician-style engravings have been found on a marble slab in North Queensland? Or that further south along the coast, in New South Wales, many strange symbols, ships, and figures of Egyptian, Phoenician and Syrian style have been discovered carved on rocks along the Hawkesbury River?

Ancient Aboriginal legends tell how people in large ships like birds (the bird-headed prows of the old Phoenician triremes?) sailed into Gympie (now 34 miles inland), dug holes in the hills, erected the "sacred mountain" found nearby and interbred with local inhabitants. Interestingly, evidence of ancient mining and smelting was recently found here, as well as traces of a causeway or stone quay.

Near Toowoomba in Queensland, recently, a group of seventeen granite stones was discovered, bearing ancient inscriptions. These were identified as Phoenician. One of them has been translated to read "guard the shrine of Yahweh’s message". Another says, "God of gods".

Some years ago, a farmer in the Rockhampton area plowed up a large ironstone slab. Today the slab sits in the museum of Rex Gilroy near Tamworth, New South Wales. It bears another Phoenician inscription that reads, "Ships sail from this land under the protection of Yahweh to Dan."
Dan was an ancient trade center in north-west Israel just south of Tyre, a Phoenician port. These discoveries were reported in an issue of the Ravenshoe Northern Star dated July-August-September, 1996.

As I commented in the book, Dead Men’s Secrets, fiction couldn’t challenge your imagination more. And yet here it all is, fact after fact, story after story, about the lives and discoveries of a people thousands of years ago.

Now naturally these exhibits will not be popular with some people. The majority of the scientific community has greeted them with deathly silence because of early indoctrination in the theory of evolution. It tries to ignore them for the sole reason that it cannot explain them.

Was it simply to control the nearby Arabian trade that Solomon and Hiram created the costly fleet of large armed ships of Tarshish?

Or were these large, sophisticated vessels fitted out to travel the earth’s surface? The biblical account suggests the latter. And the implications are dynamite.

Into the Pacific
As an eastern port on the Red Sea became a reality, the Phoenicians, with Solomon of Israel, now pursued with eagerness a further expansion eastward, to parallel that in the west.

And beyond Australia, they left a trail right across the Pacific. Samoa rises up dramatically from the sea. But its native population has traditionally not pronounced it as Samoa, but as Samo. And this was also the name of a Phoenician colony (pronounced the same way) on the coasts of Asia Minor — Samos. (Let's not forget that the Phoenicians were intermingled with the Israelites & that the so called Phoenician colonies were mostly peopled by Israelites because in the partnership of the two powers the Israelites were far more numerous than the Phoenicians).

The name Samo means, according to Pliny, "a mountain height by the sea". Both locations have a similar appearance, rising up from the sea. In fact, modern navigators term the Pacific Samoa "high islands", in contrast to the low coral atolls that surround it for hundreds of miles in all directions.

The principal island of Samoa is named Upola — the equivalent of the Scythian deity Apollo. And the main town of Western Samoa is Apia —which is the name of the Scythian deity, the Earth, as well as the name of the Peloponnesus — a Phoenician locality. (The Scythians were Israelites that adopted pagan Gods & received a new name).

Next, traveling east, the ships of Solomon and Hiram would have reached the Society Islands. Here is Tahiti, with a silent "h". This is identical to Tabiti (probably also with a silent "b"). Tabiti was the Scythian Vista. Both names would be pronounced Ta-iti.

The name of Tahiti’s chief settlement, Papeete, is only a slightly modified form of the name of the Scythian Jupiter, or father, Papeus. Morea, the name of an island separated from Papeete by a narrow strait, is the same as Morea, a principal district of the Hellenic Peninsula in the Mediterranean, colonized by the Scythians shortly before the period of Solomon’s expeditions. Morea was given that name because the contor of the shoreline resembled a mulberry leaf. This explanation is also applicable to Morea of the Pacific.

It would seem that in the Pacific the Phoenicians followed the same policy as in the Mediterranean. They established stations for the ships to call at on these long voyages. It appears that these colonies were placed under the care of responsible governors, drawn from the Scythians of the marine corps, since most of the names we have referred to were clearly drawn from this source.

There is no other explanation for the presence of Scythians in the heart of the Pacific.
Enormous stone remains in many of the Pacific Islands can be linked with local traditions. Strong’s Island is one example. An ancient tradition says that "an ancient city once stood round this harbor which was occupied by a powerful people called Anut, who had large vessels in which they made long voyages, many moons being required in their prosecution.

Early European missionaries to the Pacific found in these islands evidence of numeric skill, cosmogony, astronomical knowledge and religious system which was plainly Phoenician.

For example, the Phoenician skill in the use of numbers and astronomy is reflected in the same extraordinary skill of the Society Islanders. And their names of stars and constellations and the use to which they applied their knowledge of the heavenly bodies was the same as that of the Phoenicians.

Their sacred groves, open-air temples or marais, their human sacrifices, and their methods of initiation and practice, were identical to those of the priests of Astarte on the eastern Mediterranean.

It should be noted that, throughout the period of the Solomon-Hiram voyages, both Israel and Phoenicia were monotheistic, worshipping the one true Creator. But later, both nations descended into the worship of Baal the sun-god and Astarte (Ashteroth) the "queen of heaven". The expeditions were, however, continuing during this period. Thus, although monotheism had been planted first throughout the world wherever the expeditions went, this was eventually corrupted as new generations of sailors brought their practices with them.

The Phoenician alphabet of 16 letters was the same as the Samoan. The natives of Samos (Samo) in the Mediterranean were famous as seamen; likewise the Pacific Samoans were famed for their nautical skill.

The gymnastic systems used in the Mediterranean, as a means of training for war, as well as the implements used (including spear, javelin, bow and arrow, dart, sword, falchion, and sling and boomerang) are found over the entire route of the ships across the Pacific to the Americas.

The historical traditions, practices, circumcision and some other customs such as test of virginity were clearly Jewish. Further customs (tattooing, spear and javelin throwing) were clearly Thracian. (Josephus had many readers in the Roman Empire. Rome had much to do with Parthia and little or nothing to do with “Scythians.” Josephus may simply have had his contemporary audience in mind when he wrote about the Parthians but not the Scythians. Rome did have wars against Scythian people living in the Balkan region, but it called them “Dacians” or “Thracians.” The Thracian Scythians or just Scythians, were typical freedom loving Israelites. Spartacus, the leader of the famous slave-revolt against Rome, was a Thracian. So the Thracians were Israelites too, but with another name.)

Their worship of the skulls of ancestors, cannibalism, and use of bow and arrow as a test of strength were peculiarly Scythian.

Research has established that the implements of war and the festivals and games among these Polynesians were the same as those found in the ancient Mediterranean. And the foregoing is just a small sampling of the many parallels.

Here are startling facts, pointing to the presence together of four races — Hebrew, Phoenician, Scythian and Thracian — in the mid-Pacific in the remote past. (They were really one & the same)

How can this be explained, if not through the instrumentality of the historic expeditions of Hiram and Solomon? The Encyclopaedia Brittanica notes concerning the Polynesians that, while their facial features sometimes suggest Mongoloid affinities, their light skin, wavy hair and full beards, as well as their blood types, suggest European ties.

This is certainly consistent with the planting of outposts in the Pacific by European members of Solomon’s and Hiram’s crews, such as Scythians and Thracians.

And on to the Americas
The Maya population already inhabited central portions of the American continent. Votan, the first historian of the Maya (c.1000 BC), actually reported the arrival around that time, on the Pacific coasts of Central America, of seven large ships.

In his book on the origin of the race, Votan declares himself a descendant of Imos, of the land of Chan, of the race of Chivim.

Research shows that present-day Tripoli in Syria was, in the time of Solomon, a town in the kingdom of Tyre, and was anciently known as Chivim.

Votan is said to have led some of his people to Yucatan in Central America, where he found inhabitants already there. Here he established the kingdom of Xibalba and built the city of Nachan (probably Palenque).

A copy of Votan’s book, written in the Quiche language, existed until 1691, when it was very likely burned, along with other native relics, by the Spaniards at Huehuetan, but not before extracts had been copied from it.

Fray Lizana set down in his Historia de Yucatan the tradition that from the west (that is, from the direction of the Pacific) "many" people had come.

Indeed, there is abundant physical evidence in Central America which appears to indicate Phoenician and Hebrew penetration of these remote regions. Evidence of occupancy, linguistic features, physical characteristics, intricacies of customs, as well as traditions and place names.

Some resemblances
It will be of interest to note a few similarities to be found between the indigenous peoples of America and the Hebrews. The religion of the Mexicans strongly resembled that of the Hebrews in numerous minor details. De Bourbourg noted the perfectly Jewish dress of the women at Palin and on the shores of Lake Amatitlan. Like the Hebrews, the Mexicans tore their clothing on receipt of bad news. Another similarity was giving a kiss on the cheek as a token of peace.

The Hebrew nation were ordered to worship Yahweh the true and living God. James Adair, a trader with the "wild" Indians of the south-east of North America, discovered that the North American Indians styled the living God as Yahewah.

Like the Hebrews, the North American Indians offer their first fruits, they keep their new moons, as well as the feast of Atonement at the same time as the Jews. The brother of a deceased husband marries his widow. In some places, circumcision is practised. There is much analogy in rites and customs, such as the ceremonies of purification and the manner of prayer.

It was reported last century that the Indians likewise were abstaining from the blood of animals, as also from fish without scales. They had various "clean" and "unclean" animals.

A replica "Ark of the Covenant"?
Researchers Rivero and Tschudi indicated that they: have a species of ark, seemingly like that of the Old Testament; this the Indians take with them to war; it is never permitted to touch the ground, but rests upon stones or pieces of wood, it being deemed sacreligious and unlawful to open it or look into it. [they] celebrate the first fruits with religious dances, singing in chorus these mystic words: — YO MESCHICA, HE MESCHICA, VA MESCHICA, forming thus, with the first three syllables, the name of Je-ho-vah, and the name of Messiah thrice and pronounced, following each initial. The use of Hebrew words was not uncommon in the religious performances of the North American Indians, and Adair assures us that they called an accused or guilty person haksit canaha, "a sinner of Canaan"; and to him who was inattentive to religious worship, they said, Tschi haksit canaha, "you resemble a sinner of Canaan". Les Carbot also tells us that he had heard the Indians of South America say "Alleluia" Adair, who wrote these facts in his History of the American Nations (pp.15-212), lived 40 years among the Indians. The evidence suggests that a significant portion of the early American civilization came from the eastern shores of the Mediterranean. Its intermediaries were Phoenicians and Hebrews, who were accompanied by Thracians and Scythians, who were accustomed to hire themselves out as mercenaries.

They sailed from Ezion-geber on the Red Sea to a destination called Ophir, whose actual location has been traditionally difficult to determine.

This should occasion no surprise, since the Phoenicians adopted a policy of secrecy as to their routes and destinations after the Greeks displaced them on the eastern Mediterranean some 150 years before the expeditions that sailed from Ezion-geber.

Their route may be tracked across the Pacific by observing such traces, as still exist, of the presence of nations which formed the personnel of these expeditions. This is possible because the Phoenicians, on their longer routes, were accustomed to establishing stations for repairing and revictualling their ships and ports of call.

For how long?
How long did these voyages continue? We have no means of determining accurately. However, it is likely that they continued for some 300 years, until the Assyrians and Babylonians occupied strategic land and closed areas of Middle East territory that were crucial to the continuance of the voyages.

Lighter skinned peoples
At the time of the conquest of Peru, the Spaniards noticed that many of the Inca ruling caste were paler of skin and had reddish tints in their hair, as distinct from the native mountain peasants of the Andes, who were generally of distinctly Mongoloid ancestry.

Inca legends spoke of certain white and bearded men who advanced from the shores of Lake Titicaca, established an ascendancy over the natives, and brought civilization.

Ancient representations in stone, as well as portrait jars from the ruins of the city of Chan, in coastal Peru, show white, bearded men. And mummified corpses of chiefs from the oldest layers of graves in this region bear hair that is auburn or blond, wavy and fine.

Reports frequently surface concerning ancient "white" tribes still surviving in isolated pockets of the Americas. South American legend records that some of the bearded white men who built the enormous stone cities found in ruins there eventually left to sail westward... into the Pacific Ocean.
Polynesian legends still current are living proof that the bearded white men arrived safely in Polynesia.

But there is evidence more substantial than legend on some of these islands: pyramids, helmets and panpipes. As well as proof that irrigation , trepanning and head-deformation were practised. These same Pacific Islanders knew that the earth was round — and they had a vast astronomical knowledge, as well as a calendar curiously similar to that in the Americas.

On some of the islands, early missionaries found people of a lighter skin, who sported reddish hair and blue eyes. Which made me prick up my ears when I learned of a discovery on the other side of the world.

Some sarcophagi had been found at the old Phoenician city of Sidon. On these were some lavishly colored representations which suggest that some of the deceased were blue-eyed and had dark red hair.

In the introduction to this article I was musing on a New Zealand Maori tradition of light-skinned people with red hair and blue eyes, having long ago been driven by the Maori people into a last refuge on the Coromandel Peninsula. In distributing their products to the ends of the earth, the Phoenicians brought within the range of their influence practically every center of population, civilized and uncivilized, known to the ancient world.

Could some descendants of the crews of the Hiram-Solomon maritime expeditions have reached even the remote land of New Zealand?

American Indians

Several explorers, especially during the 17th and 18th centuries, claimed to have collected evidence that some of the American Indian tribes might be descended from the Ten Lost Tribes. Several recent books and articles have focused on these theories.

The belief that some American Indians were a Lost tribe of Israel goes back centuries and includes individuals like the 1782 President of the Continental Congress Elias Boudinot6263 and Mordecai Noah, the most influential Jew in the United States in the early 19th Century.

The Book of Mormon, one of the religious texts of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons), claims that early residents of the Americas included descendents from the tribe of Joseph, and particularly through Manasseh.


Some sources such as Howshua Amariel and various researchers assert that DNA evidence, linguistic research, and other research indicates links between the Cherokee Nation and the Jewish people.

SOLOMON'S FLEET MYSTERY: Evidence of Phoenician voyages into the South Pacific

Mount Moehau, on New Zealand’s Coromandel Peninsula, plunges steeply into the sea. Draped in subtropical rain forest, downcut by waterfalls and precipitous gorges, the region oozes mystery and enchantment.

Here, says Maori legend, the Turehu people, light-skinned, with reddish hair, made their last stand. 1 The Maoris say they found them in parts of New Zealand. As the Maori encroached, the Turehu retreated further into the hills, particularly of the Coromandel Peninsula. Here the mountains of Moehau, steep and remote, became their final refuge. Since they sought concealment near the misty summit of Moehau, the Turehu were sometimes spoken of as the "Mist People". Their voices and the ghostly piping of their flutes could often be heard in the dense forest. Huge gourds they grew. They built forts from interlaced supplejack, a long thick woody vine that trailed across the tall forest trees.

According to other Pacific islanders, people answering the same physical description had come from the east — from the direction of South America — long, long ago.

And would you believe, in South America I ran into similar traditions of a light-skinned, red-haired, blue-eyed race. According to legends, these people had settled and built cyclopean stone cities (whose ruins survive), but following a war had fled westward across the Pacific.

Was there some link, here? Could they have been the same people?

And pushing the question a little further, could these people of historical tradition have been the descendants of some ancient traders whose story we shall now relate?

Around the fifteenth century BC, two powers were taking possession of the land on the eastern Mediterranean coast. About the same time as the Hebrew (Israelite) nation was coming into Palestine, another power was being established on the sea coast adjacent to the north, a people whose career was definitely marked out for them.

It was the destiny of Phoenicia that she should become to the ancient world in material things, what the Hebrew had become in spiritual things.

Phoenicia was the great manufacturing nation of the ancient world. Her dyed textiles, glass technology, superb stonework, ceramics and gem engraving were unsurpassed.

Indeed, L.A. Waddell (citing Sir Flinders Petrie) asserts that the Phoenicians "had a civilization equal or superior to that of Egypt, in taste and skill.., luxury far beyond that of the Egyptians, and technical work which could teach them rather than be taught."

The city of Tyre was the London of antiquity, the centre of a vast global trading network.

Mistress of the seas
Phoenicia, mistress of the seas, sent ships to all ports and traversed all oceans. From the thirteenth century BC she was the dominant naval and commercial power. Her mercantile operations were enormous. This great naval power had the trade of the planet in her hands. She was a great distributing nation; her people were the carriers of the world.

The famous Indian epic, the Mahabharata, states that: The able Panch (Phoenicians) setting out to invade the Earth, brought the whole world under their sway.

They were termed "leaders of the Earth".

And Phoenicia was, in the tenth to eleventh centuries BC as great as Babylon or Egypt.
The coasts and islands of the Mediterranean were rapidly covered with colonies. Today’s "Venice" preserves the ethnic title of "Phoenicia".

The Straits of Gibraltar were passed and cities built on the shores of the Atlantic. They founded Gades (Cadiz) on Spain’s west coast, 2,500 miles from Tyre, as the starting point for the Atlantic trade.

In the expanding range of their voyages, Phoenician ships out of Spain were battling the wild Atlantic en route to the tin of Cornwall and even to Norway (2,000 miles beyond Gades).

Eastward, there is evidence that Phoenicia built factories on the Persian Gulf and traded as far as Ceylon.

London founded

An interesting sideline concerns the founding of London.
It has been adduced from substantial evidence that some 89 years after the fall of Troy (a Phoenician colony), Brutus, a descendant of the Trojan royalty, sailed up the River Thames in Britain and founded Tri-Novantum ("New Troy"). This ultimately became London. 

Thus, contrary to popular misconception, there existed a highly civilized dynasty, which survived in Britain even until the Roman invasion. It left behind gold coins, at least one surviving stone inscription and a detailed chronology. Indeed, Julius Caesar and other contemporaries testified to its cultured, well-dressed city-dwelling subjects, though untamed tribes did flank the western and northern borders.

Researcher L.A. Waddell gives an authenticated unbroken chronology of highly civilized independent British kings reigning in London from Brutus (c. 1103 BC) to the Roman conquerors. There is evidence that a large proportion of the people of Britain are descendants of the sea-going Phoenicians.

Sophisticated Instruments
Phoenician ships probed ever further. Navigation across open ocean was no problem to these explorers.

Due to the insufficient attention paid to this aspect of the subject, we have tended to belittle the size and sophistication of Phoenician shipping.

If we conceive of it as represented by types of marine craft as outlined on Phoenician coins and tombs, we shall not be able to suppose that the nation was ever employed on such voyages as those that shall shortly engage our attention.

There is evidence that they had the benefit of sophisticated instruments and large, fast, modern vessels carrying over 500 people. This will be a surprise to many readers.

"Ships of Tarshish"
The type of vessel built especially for ocean travel was designated "ship of Tarshish" to distinguish it from the smaller craft which merely plied the eastern Mediterranean.

The name of the original Tarshish (in Spain) became displaced as the horizon of the Phoenician navigators moved westward.

Herodotus records a Phoenician clockwise circumnavigation of Africa about 600 BC, on behalf of Pharaoh Necho — a distance of 13,000 miles. Herodotus sniffed at their report that the sun was on their right, that is, to their north.

This establishes the fact that Phoenician nautical prowess and daring was at a level not to be seen in modern times until the century of Columbus.

It is only due to the proud announcement of the Pharaoh who sponsored the trip that we know of this voyage. The Phoenicians were not publicists.

So what other trips were being made — from perhaps as early as 1200 BC?
At La Venta, Mexico, was found a sculpture with distinctly Phoenician characteristics: bearded faces, upturned shoes, twisted rope borders and other details. It has been dated to around 850 BC. From Nicaragua to Mexico, on jade figurines, the backs of slate mirrors, funeral urns and other objects, appear bearded men who bear little resemblance to American Indians.

A well-known colony of Phoenicia was Carthage. An ancient historical work records the voyage of a convoy of as many as 60 ships, each carrying 550 people. This was around 500 BC.

Strabo writes that Phoenician colonies (300 colonies, he estimates) were planted prolifically well down the Atlantic coast of Africa.

From West Africa, it would be a simple matter to follow the trade winds to - you guessed it - South America.

To some, the idea that ancient mariners would have known the Americas may appear too ridiculous to consider, and it will be cast aside. But before such actions are taken, surely the evidence for this position should be carefully considered.

As Michael G. Bradley aptly put it, "The truth is just now being glimpsed by a handful of specialists - it is still almost completely unsuspected by the average civilized citizen."

Voyages to the New World at around the time of King Solomon of Israel now seem more likely than not.

Some twelve years’ research for the book Dead Men’s Secrets finally convinced me that these colonists of a forgotten age were indeed part of a great network of ancient civilizations that once maintained a flourishing trade between Europe, Asia, and the Americas, some 3,000 years ago.

I should not have been surprised to discover that Harvard professor Dr. Barry Fell, from his own research, had reached the same conclusion. He considered the ancient visitors to North America were probably not explorers, but rather merchants, trading with well-established fur trappers and very likely also mining precious metals on those sites where ancient workings have been discovered.

Fell states:
Because of the depth of ignorance into which Europe fell during the Dark Ages, at times we are apt to forget how advanced were the ideas of the ancients, and how much they knew about the earth and about astronomy and navigation.

Fell is also convinced that "America shares a history with the Old World, and ancient Americans must have been well acquainted with much of that history as it took place."

Dr. Fell is now recognised as one of the world’s foremost epigraphers.

Phoenicians in America?
In 1780, on a rock on the shores of Mount Hope Bay in Bristol, Rhode Island, there was discovered an inscription, which Fell deciphered in 1975 to read:

VOYAGERS FROM TARSHISH THIS STONE PROCLAIMS

This suggests strongly that here on the eastern seaboard of North America there was once a port for "ships of Tarshish".

On the island of Hispaniola, Columbus discovered immense ancient mines. In Haiti, he thought he could trace furnaces in which gold had been refined.

Between 1850 and 1910, travelers in the Amazon region and other parts of Brazil were reporting the finding of old inscriptions on rock faces.

Former rubber tapper Bernardo da Silva Ramos, in a now rare book in Portuguese, has published 1,500 reproductions from such rock carvings. They are all covered over with the letters of the Phoenician alphabet.

Investigator Pierre Honore discussing the finds of other Brazilian travelers and explorers of last century, states:

Today there is a whole library full of their reports; and they too were firmly convinced that the inscriptions were Phoenician texts. They were sure that King Solomon (975-935 BC) had once come to the Amazon with his ships; that the gold countries of Ophir, Tarshish and Parvaim were not to be looked for in the Old World at all, but here in the Amazon region on the Rio Solimoes, Solomon’s River.

It is reported that in Havea near Rio de Janeiro are letters several feet high inscribed upon a sheer cliff face in cuneiform. The inscription reads:

BADEZIR OF THE PHOENICIAN TYRE. THE FIRST SON OF JETHBAAL

(Jethbaal ruled Tyre from 887 to 856 BC.)
In 1872, on the coast of Brazil near Paraiba, Joaquim Alves da Costa found on his property a stone that bore numerous characters which no one understood. He copied them and sent them to the President of the Instituto Historico. A translation is as follows:

We are Sidonian Canaanites from the city of the Merchant King. We were cast
(2) up on this distant island, a land of mountains. We sacrificed a youth to the celestial gods
(3) and goddesses in the nineteenth year of our mighty King Hiram
(4) and embarked from Ezion-geber into the Red Sea. We voyaged with ten ships
(5) and were at sea together for two years around Africa. Then we were separated
(6) by the hand of Baal and were no longer with our companions. So we have come here, twelve
(7) men and three women, into "Island of Iron". Am I, the Admiral, a man who would flee?
(8) Nay! May the celestial gods and goddesses favor us well.

This eight-line inscription proved to be in Phoenician characters. There are reasons to believe that the king referred to was Hiram III (553-533 BC). Brazil was known, anciently, as Hy Brasil. The incorporation of ‘I’ or ‘Hy’ is typically Phoenician.

According to Cyrus Gordon, Head of the Department of Mediterranean studies at Brandeis University, Massachusetts, the Phoenicians certainly knew Brazil, which they called "Island of Iron". Hy Brasil means "Island of Iron". Iron is still the country’s main resource.

When I first learned of this inscription, I was skeptical. Mention of it was omitted from my book Dead Men’s Secrets, since I preferred to publish only discoveries which could be confirmed beyond doubt as genuine. Others also considered it to be a fraud.

As we noted, at the time the alleged inscription was found, the script was not known. No one other than the original translator could read it. That has now changed.

Significantly, it contains Phoenician idiosyncrasies that were unknown in 1872 but which are now authenticated by other inscriptions found since.

Concerning many such initially rejected finds, Barry Fell says:
One by one competent scholars who hold responsible positions in universities and museums are now coming forward with confirmations of the decipherments.

Shipping routes westward at first
The trend of Phoenician colonial development prior to 1000 BC was mainly in a westerly direction.

However, it is quite certain that they did not long rest satisfied with that.
With their overland routes to the east at risk from unrest in Babylonia, the Phoenicians gave careful attention to an alternative eastern route.

We know that Hiram I, king of Tyre, shared a friendship with Israel’s King David, and with his son Solomon.

There was also a religious sympathy. These early Phoenicians — contrary to the now current notions of popular writers — were monotheists.

As a result of a commercial treaty, Hiram assisted in the erection of Solomon’s Temple and Israel granted Phoenicia the two ports of Eilat and Ezion-geber on the Gulf of Aqaba.

Like Gades in the west, the Persian Gulf colonies must now be viewed not as an end of Phoenician navigation in the east, but as the starting point for more distant navigation.

Fortunately, a mass of undigested historic data leaves no doubt concerning this fact.

King Solomon’s silver
We find that the ships employed in the prosecution of the silver trade in both easterly and westerly directions were now "ships of Tarshish".

Suddenly we find gold and silver in such abundance in Jerusalem that Solomon made silver to be in Jerusalem as stones… for abundance"

And why? "... for the king had at sea a navy of Tarshish with the navy of Hiram: once in three years came the navy of Tarshish, bringing gold and silver, ivory, and apes, and peacocks."

There can be no question that the peacocks came from South-East Asia. But whence the abundance of silver?

Says Heeren:
Silver is also found in Siberia and in China or South Asia, but the large annual importation of the metal from Europe in consequence of the high price it bore in the East sufficiently prove that it was found there in small quantities. We may therefore conclude with certainty that the greater portion of the silver possessed of old by the Asiatic nations was imported, and there can be no question that the Phoenicians were the channel of importation.

Ultimate destination: Ophir
The ultimate destination of the ships of Hiram and Solomon was a place or region called Ophir.

"And they came to Ophir," says the Scripture, "and fetched from thence gold." "And the navy also of Hiram, that brought gold from Ophir, brought in from Ophir great plenty of almug trees, and precious stones."

From the books of Genesis 23 and Josephus, it can be found that Ophir was the general name for the rich southern countries lying on the African, Arabian and Indian coasts.

But when we ask, Where was that Ophir which could be reached from Ezion-geber that provided silver in such abundance, we are faced with a problem.

It can be shown that the source was not Asia, the greater portion of whose silver was imported.

Silver was so scarce in Arabia, that it was assessed at ten times the value of gold. 

Yet in Solomon’s Jerusalem it became as common as stones.
I am aware of the nineteenth century explorers’ tales that supposedly identified the mines of Ophir with central Africa. There are people who refuse to accept that the massive stone fortress known as the ruins of Zimbabwe (and situated in that country) could have been built by native Africans.

Such identification with King Solomon must be regarded as romantic fiction.
Zimbabwe is AD not BC and almost certainly it is the work of a powerful indigenous African empire.

"Three year" voyages
That the expeditions pushed into regions much more distant than the Indian Ocean is apparent from the "three years" required for the double voyage, only nine months being required for a return journey to the extremities of Arabia.

Thomas Johnston suggests that Ophir "must be looked for in the farther East, and in a territory that was not only capable of supplying silver in practically unlimited quantities, but of affording conclusive evidence of occupancy by the Jews and Phoenicians."

Johnston argues persuasively that the route of the expeditions can be traced beyond the peacock lands, through Indonesia, the Torres Strait (at the north of Australia), and via Samoa and Tahiti to Mexico and Peru. It appears that they founded colonies along the route.

An American destination accords well with the fact that the world’s largest silver deposits are in the Americas — in the United States, Mexico, Canada and Peru.

Reached from two directions
The Bible says that the distant land of Tarshish was rich in silver, iron, tin and lead. It could be reached from the Mediterranean port of Joppa (Jaffa), or the Red Sea port of Ezion-geber.

A glance at the map tells us that the only part of the world that one would reach by ship from either the Mediterranean or Red Sea ports is the Atlantic seaboard.

Cyrus Gordon of Brandeis University, Massachusetts, says that a text mentioning "gold of Ophir" found at Tell Qasile on the Mediterranean coast of Israel, suggests that Ophir could be reached via Gibraltar. I am aware that many places have been suggested as the location of Solomon’s fabled mines. New respect for the seagoing capabilities of early navigators makes the Americas a strong possibility.

"Ofir"
The Ugha Mongulala tribe of north-west Brazil preserve written records of an ancient city called Ofir (Ophir) which once stood at the mouth of the Amazon River.

This is the ONLY independent mention of a specific locality called Ophir, outside of the Bible. Could this be significant?

Their tradition states that:
Lhasa, the prince of Akakor... commanded the construction of Ofir, a powerful harbor city at the mouth of the Great River [the Amazon]. Ships from Samon’s [Solomon’s?] empire docked there with their valuable cargoes. In exchange for gold and silver...

Perhaps, like that of Tarshish, the name Ophir became displaced, and as the trade of the Phoenicians moved further eastward and westward, it moved with the trade, until in course of time it came to be applied to a more distant region controlled by the Phoenicians.

Corroborating this, the Phoenician Ophir or Ofor means, in their ancient language, the Western Country.

And what land lay to the west? The Americas, no less.

Mixed crews
While the expeditions were under Jewish and Phoenician direction, they undoubtedly carried crews and marine force of composite nationality, In the next chapter we shall touch on evidence suggesting that considerable numbers of Seythians and Thracians were employed on the Phoenician fleets. At this time in history Hebrew, Phoenician, Scythian and Thracian were the dominant factors in the national life of the eastern Mediterranean. The Thracians and Scythians were then the two great nations of south-eastern Europe.

Eastward
There must have been, from Ezion-geber, a general push of the giant "ships of Tarshish" toward the east.

To control the South Arabian markets could not have been the sole purpose of Solomon building his great ships. If these ships had been merely constructed to trade with Yemen, and back, and if, as the Scripture says, the journey had taken three years, then Solomon and Hiram were inept investors. The cost of the ships, the expense of working them, the interest on capital for such a long interval, as well as the deterioration of cargo in such a climate, would have outweighed any advantage of using sea transport, as against an overland route.

Furthermore, it seems most unlikely that expeditions to a place as close as Yemen could have wakened such enthusiasm, as to have brought Solomon and his court from their safe capital into the heart of a discontented country to witness the departure of the ships and their crews, as 2 Chronicles 8:17 records.

If we continue the line to Java and Sumatra, we will have reached the native home of the peacock, which was collected on the return journey of Solomon’s and Hiram’s expeditions.

Penetrating beyond Indonesia, we shall discover some facts of a rather startling nature.

The "ships of Tarshish" encountered unknown perils as they ventured into new regions. One particularly dangerous passage was along the north-western coast of Australia.

Any mariner approaching the north-west coast of Australia could find the West Kimberley area near Derby one of the most dangerous on the coast. A violent rip runs up to ten knots and creates whirlpools. To come in at the entrance to King Sound, ships must run through this riptide. There are many reefs and shoals. Navigation is hazardous.

Around the entrance to King Sound lie the islands of the Buccaneer Archipelago. King Sound itself is about 90 miles long and at its widest about 35 miles across.

A feature of this area is the extreme rise and fall of tides: up to 35 feet, which leaves ships high and dry.

Here salvage diver Allan Robinson found what he believed to be the wreck of an ancient Phoenician ship.

He noticed that in the mud of the swamp off the mainland, there was a strange shape. Small pips of mud seemed to project above the surroundings to form a shape more like a banana than a ship.

The contor was quite plain. A bronze plate was retrieved and declared by a university official to be of Phoenician origin.

The Phoenician wreck was near an overgrown mine of galena. And galena is an ore of silver, lead and zinc.

It is not surprising that, if the ships of Solomon and Hiram came as far as Java and Sumatra (which, as we said, was the native home of the peacock — one item of Solomon’s cargo), that they would have found the nearby coast of Australia.

Their route would have taken them through Torres Strait. And, conceivably, they could have sailed down the eastern coast of Australia.

Should it surprise us, then, that Phoenician-style engravings have been found on a marble slab in North Queensland? Or that further south along the coast, in New South Wales, many strange symbols, ships, and figures of Egyptian, Phoenician and Syrian style have been discovered carved on rocks along the Hawkesbury River?

Ancient Aboriginal legends tell how people in large ships like birds (the bird-headed prows of the old Phoenician triremes?) sailed into Gympie (now 34 miles inland), dug holes in the hills, erected the "sacred mountain" found nearby and interbred with local inhabitants. Interestingly, evidence of ancient mining and smelting was recently found here, as well as traces of a causeway or stone quay.

Near Toowoomba in Queensland, recently, a group of seventeen granite stones was discovered, bearing ancient inscriptions. These were identified as Phoenician. One of them has been translated to read "guard the shrine of Yahweh’s message". Another says, "God of gods".

Some years ago, a farmer in the Rockhampton area plowed up a large ironstone slab. Today the slab sits in the museum of Rex Gilroy near Tamworth, New South Wales. It bears another Phoenician inscription that reads, "Ships sail from this land under the protection of Yahweh to Dan."

Dan was an ancient trade center in north-west Israel just south of Tyre, a Phoenician port. These discoveries were reported in an issue of the Ravenshoe Northern Star dated July-August-September, 1996.

As I commented in the book, Dead Men’s Secrets, fiction couldn’t challenge your imagination more. And yet here it all is, fact after fact, story after story, about the lives and discoveries of a people thousands of years ago.

Now naturally these exhibits will not be popular with some people. The majority of the scientific community has greeted them with deathly silence because of early indoctrination in the theory of evolution. It tries to ignore them for the sole reason that it cannot explain them.

I ask, was it simply to control the nearby Arabian trade that Solomon and Hiram created the costly fleet of large armed ships of Tarshish? 

Or were these large, sophisticated vessels fitted out to travel the earth’s surface?

The biblical account suggests the latter. And the implications are dynamite.

Into the Pacific
As an eastern port on the Red Sea became a reality, the Phoenicians, with Solomon of Israel, now pursued with eagerness a further expansion eastward, to parallel that in the west.

And beyond Australia, they left a trail right across the Pacific. Samoa rises up dramatically from the sea. But its native population has traditionally not pronounced it as Samoa, but as Samo. And this was also the name of a Phoenician colony (pronounced the same way) on the coasts of Asia Minor — Samos.

The name Samo means, according to Pliny, "a mountain height by the sea". Both locations have a similar appearance, rising up from the sea. In fact, modern navigators term the Pacific Samoa "high islands", in contrast to the low coral atolls that surround it for hundreds of miles in all directions.

The principal island of Samoa is named Upola — the equivalent of the Scythian deity Apollo. And the main town of Western Samoa is Apia —which is the name of the Scythian deity, the Earth, 35 as well as the name of the Peloponnesus 36 — a Phoenician locality.

Next, traveling east, the ships of Solomon and Hiram would have reached the Society Islands. Here is Tahiti, with a silent "h". This is identical to Tabiti (probably also with a silent "b"). Tabiti was the Scythian Vista. Both names would be pronounced Ta-iti.

The name of Tahiti’s chief settlement, Papeete, is only a slightly modified form of the name of the Scythian Jupiter, or father, Papeus.

Morea, the name of an island separated from Papeete by a narrow strait, is the same as Morea, a principal district of the Hellenic Peninsula in the Mediterranean, colonized by the Scythians shortly before the period of Solomon’s expeditions. Morea was given that name because the contour of the shoreline resembled a mulberry leaf. This explanation is also applicable to Morea of the Pacific.

It would seem that in the Pacific the Phoenicians followed the same policy as in the Mediterranean. They established stations for the ships to call at on these long voyages. It appears that these colonies were placed under the care of responsible governors, drawn from the Scythians of the marine corps, since most of the names we have referred to were clearly drawn from this source.

There is no other explanation for the presence of Scythians in the heart of the Pacific.

Enormous stone remains in many of the Pacific Islands can be linked with local traditions.
Strong’s Island is one example. An ancient tradition says that "an ancient city once stood round this harbor which was occupied by a powerful people called Anut, who had large vessels in which they made long voyages, many moons being required in their prosecution.

Early European missionaries to the Pacific found in these islands evidence of numeric skill, cosmogony, astronomical knowledge and religious system which was plainly Phoenician.

For example, the Phoenician skill in the use of numbers and astronomy is reflected in the same extraordinary skill of the Society Islanders. And their names of stars and constellations and the use to which they applied their knowledge of the heavenly bodies was the same as that of the Phoenicians.

Laver before entering the Lord's Temple of Jerusalem

Their sacred groves, open-air temples or marais, their human sacrifices, and their methods of initiation and practice, were identical to those of the priests of Astarte on the eastern Mediterranean.

It should be noted that, throughout the period of the Solomon-Hiram voyages, both Israel and Phoenicia were monotheistic, worshipping the one true Creator. But later, both nations descended into the worship of Baal the sun-god and Astarte (Ashteroth) the "queen of heaven". The expeditions were, however, continuing during this period. Thus, although monotheism had been planted first throughout the world wherever the expeditions went, this was eventually corrupted as new generations of sailors brought their practices with them.

The Phoenician alphabet of 16 letters was the same as the Samoan. The natives of Samos (Samo) in the Mediterranean were famous as seamen; likewise the Pacific Samoans were famed for their nautical skill.

The gymnastic systems used in the Mediterranean, as a means of training for war, as well as the implements used (including spear, javelin, bow and arrow, dart, sword, falchion, and sling and boomerang) are found over the entire route of the ships across the Pacific to the Americas.

The historical traditions, practices, circumcision and some other customs such as test of virginity were clearly Jewish.

Further customs (tattooing, spear and javelin throwing) were clearly Thracian.

Their worship of the skulls of ancestors, cannibalism, and use of bow and arrow as a test of strength were peculiarly Scythian.

Research has established that the implements of war and the festivals and games among these Polynesians were the same as those found in the ancient Mediterranean. And the foregoing is just a small sampling of the many parallels.

Here are startling facts, pointing to the presence together of four races — Hebrew, Phoenician, Scythian and Thracian — in the mid-Pacific in the remote past.

How can this be explained, if not through the instrumentality of the historic expeditions of Hiram and Solomon?

The Encyclopaedia Brittanica notes concerning the Polynesians that, while their facial features sometimes suggest Mongoloid affinities, their light skin, wavy hair and full beards, as well as their blood types, suggest European ties.

This is certainly consistent with the planting of outposts in the Pacific by European members of Solomon’s and Hiram’s crews, such as Scythians and Thracians.

And on to the Americas
The Maya population already inhabited central portions of the American continent.
Votan, the first historian of the Maya (c.1000 BC), actually reported the arrival around that time, on the Pacific coasts of Central America, of seven large ships.

In his book on the origin of the race, Votan declares himself a descendant of Imos, of the land of Chan, of the race of Chivim.

Research shows that present-day Tripoli in Syria was, in the time of Solomon, a town in the kingdom of Tyre, and was anciently known as Chivim.

Votan is said to have led some of his people to Yucatan in Central America, where he found inhabitants already there. Here he established the kingdom of Xibalba and built the city of Nachan (probably Palenque).

A copy of Votan’s book, written in the Quiche language, existed until 1691, when it was very likely burned, along with other native relics, by the Spaniards at Huehuetan, but not before extracts had been copied from it.

Fray Lizana set down in his Historia de Yucatan the tradition that from the west (that is, from the direction of the Pacific) "many" people had come.

Indeed, there is abundant physical evidence in Central America which appears to indicate Phoenician and Hebrew penetration of these remote regions. Evidence of occupancy, linguistic features, physical characteristics, intricacies of customs, as well as traditions and place names.

Some resemblances
It will be of interest to note a few similarities to be found between the indigenous peoples of America and the Hebrews.

The religion of the Mexicans strongly resembled that of the Hebrews in numerous minor details. De Bourbourg noted the perfectly Jewish dress of the women at Palin and on the shores of Lake Amatitlan. Like the Hebrews, the Mexicans tore their clothing on receipt of bad news. Another similarity was giving a kiss on the cheek as a token of peace.

The Hebrew nation were ordered to worship Yahweh the true and living God. James Adair, a trader with the "wild" Indians of the south-east of North America, discovered that the North American Indians styled the living God as Yahewah.

Like the Hebrews, the North American Indians offer their first fruits, they keep their new moons, as well as the feast of Atonement at the same time as the Jews. The brother of a deceased husband marries his widow. In some places, circumcision is practised. There is much analogy in rites and customs, such as the ceremonies of purification and the manner of prayer.

It was reported last century that the Indians likewise were abstaining from the blood of animals, as also from fish without scales. They had various "clean" and "unclean" animals.

A replica "Ark of the Covenant"?

Researchers Rivero and Tschudi indicated that they:
have a species of ark, seemingly like that of the Old Testament; this the Indians take with them to war; it is never permitted to touch the ground, but rests upon stones or pieces of wood, it being deemed sacreligious and unlawful to open it or look into it. [they] celebrate the first fruits with religious dances, singing in chorus these mystic words: — YO MESCHICA, HE MESCHICA, VA MESCHICA, forming thus, with the first three syllables, the name of Je-ho-vah, and the name of Messiah thrice and pronounced, following each initial. The use of Hebrew words was not uncommon in the religious performances of the North American Indians, and Adair assures us that they called an accused or guilty person haksit canaha, "a sinner of Canaan"; and to him who was inattentive to religious worship, they said, Tschi haksit canaha, "you resemble a sinner of Canaan". Les Carbot also tells us that he had heard the Indians of South America say "Alleluia"

Adair, who wrote these facts in his History of the American Nations (pp.15-212), lived 40 years among the Indians.

The evidence suggests that a significant portion of the early American civilization came from the eastern shores of the Mediterranean. Its intermediaries were Phoenicians and Hebrews, who were accompanied by Thracians and Scythians, who were accustomed to hire themselves out as mercenaries.

They sailed from Ezion-geber on the Red Sea to a destination called Ophir, whose actual location has been traditionally difficult to determine.

This should, however, occasion no surprise, since the Phoenicians adopted a policy of secrecy as to their routes and destinations after the Greeks displaced them on the eastern Mediterranean some 150 years before the expeditions that sailed from Ezion-geber.

Their route may be tracked across the Pacific by observing such traces as still exist of the presence of nations which formed the personnel of these expeditions. This is possible because the Phoenicians, on their longer routes, were accustomed to establishing stations for repairing and revictualling their ships and ports of call.

For how long?
How long did these voyages continue? We have no means of determining accurately. However, it is likely that they continued for some 300 years, until the Assyrians and Babylonians occupied strategic land and closed areas of Middle East territory that were crucial to the continuance of the voyages.

Lighter skinned peoples
At the time of the conquest of Peru, the Spaniards noticed that many of the Inca ruling caste were paler of skin and had reddish tints in their hair, as distinct from the native mountain peasants of the Andes, who were generally of distinctly Mongoloid ancestry.

Inca legends spoke of certain white and bearded men who advanced from the shores of Lake Titicaca, established an ascendancy over the natives, and brought civilization.

Ancient representations in stone, as well as portrait jars from the ruins of the city of Chan, in coastal Peru, show white, bearded men. And mummified corpses of chiefs from the oldest layers of graves in this region bear hair that is auburn or blond, wavy and fine.

Reports frequently surface concerning ancient "white" tribes still surviving in isolated pockets of the Americas.

South American legend records that some of the bearded white men who built the enormous stone cities found in ruins there eventually left to sail westward... into the Pacific Ocean.

Polynesian legends still current are living proof that the bearded white men arrived safely in Polynesia.

But there is evidence more substantial than legend on some of these islands: pyramids, helmets and panpipes. As well as proof that irrigation , trepanning and head-deformation were practised. These same Pacific Islanders knew that the earth was round — and they had a vast astronomical knowledge, as well as a calendar curiously similar to that in the Americas.

On some of the islands, early missionaries found people of a lighter skin, who sported reddish hair and blue eyes. Which made me prick up my ears when I learned of a discovery on the other side of the world.

Some sarcophagi had been found at the old Phoenician city of Sidon. On these were some lavishly colored representations which suggest that some of the deceased were blue-eyed and had dark red hair.

Now I prefer not to speculate. It’s just a thought. In the introduction to this article I was musing on a New Zealand Maori tradition of light-skinned people with red hair and blue eyes, having long ago been driven by the Maori people into a last refuge on the Coromandel Peninsula.

In distributing their products to the ends of the earth, the Phoenicians brought within the range of their influence practically every center of population, civilized and uncivilized, known to the ancient world.


And the thought just crossed my mind. Could some descendants of the crews of the Hiram-Solomon maritime expeditions have reached even the remote land of New Zealand?

Is Maori a Hebrew Word?

The Maoris have a strong identification with Israel. The last i is a suffix meaning "from", "of"... like in Israeli, meaning from Israel, or Iraqi, from Iraq. Not by chance Maor or Ma'or has a Hebrew meaning, being light or source of light. The Bible says: "And God made two great lights, the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night, he made the stars also" (Genesis 1, 16). Then renders the one of the light Inca means sons of the sun. According to the Spaniard anthropologist Pedro Cieza de León the Incas said there was great darkness & after the darkness great light came from the sun & a man tall man from there. This man was God. From this comes sons of the sun. I think the name Maori & Inca have the same conceptual origin.

Another possibility of the origin of the word Mâori is that it came from Maqor through Maqori. Maqor means fountain, well, flow, spring... in Hebrew. New Zealand is one of the most evergreen rainy countries, therefore is or was with plenty of fountains, wells, water springs or anything related to water. As mentioned before, the suffix i is the equivalent of "of, from, 's...in Semitic languages). Maqori (later evolved into Maori) would mean "people of the fountain" or something similar. Maqori is an Arabic last name too. 

Maori Prophecy and Zion

Maori Prophets

"The missionaries despaired over many of the Maori's responses to the Christian teachings. But it was the scriptures which provided the model for a new dimension to Maori spirituality." 

"All the prophets tried to establish a common identity for the Maori as Israelites, cutting across the tribal divisions while still accepting them historically. They drew on traditional Maori concepts of the cosmology, and particularly on the intervening role of the aria, the spirits of the ancestors, who may appear to the living in many forms. The ancestors were and are believed to speak with the mouth of the gods, and to be able to remember what has not yet happened. These Maori concepts of cyclic history were brought into the framework of the Judaeo-Christian faiths, and created the new religions. The prophets believed, like the Israelites, that God moved with people through time."

Te Whiti and Parihaka

The Taranaki is one of the worst examples of Pakeha appropriation of Maori land. In southern Taranaki a new Maori prophet, Te Whiti, held up settlement. He foretold that the day would come when the Pakeha would all go and leave New Zealand for the Maori. Te Whiti opposed drinking alcohol and the prayer meetings he conducted in his village at Parihaka attracted many followers. Te Whiti believed that his tribe had been promised reserves when the government had taken their land. These had not been given. To the Maoris, of course, it was their land, not government land.

Te Whiti's followers began to resist the European occupation of the confiscated land. They pulled out survey pegs and ploughed up nearby European farms in a peaceful protest. What scared the government was that a leader of the ploughing parties was the famous guerilla fighter Titokowaru. In 1881 the Native Minister, John Bryce, led an expedition of the militia to occupy Parihaka, where they were met by a couple of hundred children, singing and dancing. One of our early poets, Jessie Mackay, wrote a parody of "The Charge of the Light Brigade" to celebrate the victory of the militia. Te Whiti and another leader, Tohu, were arrested and locked up for a year.

When they went back Te Whiti built a model village with piped water and electricity. This was a new effort to lead his people to a successful life in the world of the Pakeha.

As Te Kooti lay dying he said, "in twice seven years a man shall arise in the mountains to succeed me. He shall be the new prophet of the people." Rua Kenana said that he was that man. He called himself Te Mihaia Hou, the new Messiah. As Te Kooti had done, Rua used the sufferings of the Jews to explain the present suffering of the Tuhoe people. His followers called themselves Nga Iharaira (the Israelites), and his settlement at Maungapohatu, in the Ureweras, was called New Jerusalem. Rua promised the Tuhoe that their lands would be returned and that Pakeha rule would come to an end. At its peak, Rua's New 

Jerusalem attracted over a thousand people, mostly from the Tuhoe and Whakatohea tribes. Maungapohatu was very isolated and few Pakehas had ever been there. Strange stories were told by people who knew nothing about Rua and who were afraid of Maori prophets. During the First World War Pakeha fears began to centre upon Rua's attitude to the war. He told his followers that the time for fighting was past. They should not fight in the Pakehas' war. It was a short step from that to the Pakehas believing that Rua was on Germany's side. People began to call Rua "the Maori Kaiser" and to talk about the New Jerusalem as Rua's "stronghold". The government decided to arrest him.

Tahupotiki Ratana and the Ratana religion

Tahupotiki Wiremu Ratana was the founder of a Maori religious movement which, in the late 1920s, also became a major political movement. His prophetic descent included Te Ua Haumene, Tawhiao Te Wherowhero, Tohu Kakahi, Te Whiti-o-Rongomai, Titokowaru, Te Kooti Arikirangi, Paora Te Potangaroa and Mere Rikiriki. Through his grandfather, Ratana Ngahina, he was connected to Ngati Apa, Nga Wairiki, Nga Rauru and Ngati Hine. Ratana Ngahina was respected as a chief and generous benefactor of the community. Ratanas mother was Methodist; his senior kinswoman, Mere Rikiriki, a faith healer and dispenser of herbal medicine, had been at Parihaka with Te Whiti and Tohu and had later established her own Church of the Holy Spirit at Parewanui. She taught Ratana her beliefs and skills. He was exposed to strong but diverse religious and political influences.


Although Mere Rikiriki had prophesied in 1912 that Ratana would become a spiritual leader, he showed little sign of his potential until 1918. That year, events occurred which were later interpreted as omens of significance. On 8 November, he saw a strange cloud like a whirlwind approach. As he ran towards his house he experienced a vision of all the worlds roads stretching towards him and felt a heavy but invisible weight descend upon his shoulders. His family saw that he looked strange. He had been struck dumb, but the Holy Spirit spoke through him to his family: May peace be upon you; I am the Holy Spirit who is speaking to you; wash yourselves clean, make yourselves ready. Ratana was regarded as the Mangai (mouthpiece) of the Holy Spirit, and in later years this day was celebrated as the anniversary of his maramatanga (revelation).

Through the next few weeks Ratanas family believed him mad. At times he spoke with the voices of the Holy Spirit or the archangels Gabriel or Michael. He cleared out his house and took his family for night walks over rugged farm land. He put all the clothes and belongings of some members of his family in piles and said they belonged to the dead; all of their owners died in the influenza epidemic then raging throughout New Zealand. Those who had followed his advice to leave their homes survived. As his strange behaviour continued, Te Urumanaao and other family members came to believe that he was not mad but divinely inspired.

Ratana began to show an ability to heal through prayer. The first healing was that of his son Omeka, who had become ill in October when a needle became lodged behind his knee. A planned operation at Wanganui Hospital did not eventuate because the needle could not be located. Omeka was brought home; it was predicted that he would die. After a week of intensive prayer the needle emerged from Omekas thigh. Word spread, and at a hui tangihanga for all those who had lost family members in the influenza epidemic, the Whanganui chief Te Kahupukoro brought his bedridden daughter to see Ratana. After asking the girl whether she believed in the power of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit, Ratana told her to rise; she recovered to lead a normal life. This was the second of many healings, and by the end of 1918 a growing number of visitors came to Ratanas farm. The three years following saw the rapid rise of Ratanas reputation throughout New Zealand and, after his first cures of Europeans, further afield. He had 20 to 100 visitors daily; articles called him the Maori Miracle Man.

Ratana also led a sweeping religious revival, mainly among Maori. In 1921 and 1922 he travelled throughout the North and South Islands with dozens of supporters; marquees were erected to shelter them and some meetings were attended by thousands. His motorcade between Napier and Tauranga was estimated to have cost 1,300. All of these visits produced numerous conversions to his teachings; in some places more than half the Maori population agreed to become part of the morehu (survivors), the name for Ratanas followers. In places visited by Ratana the cures witnessed lent weight to his prophetic sayings, which were treasured afterwards. As part of his campaign against traditional Maori religion and tohunga he deliberately desecrated places of ancient tapu.

Ratana was physically unremarkable save for his piercing eyes. His voice and manner were quiet and gentle; he adopted no histrionics and did not touch his patients. His method was to question them about their illness and their faith in the healing powers of the Father, Son, Holy Spirit, and the Faithful Angels. If the answers were satisfactory he would command them to rise, or set aside their crutches. He worked mainly with the lame, the blind or the paralysed. He did not always aim for instant healing. A growing pile of crutches, walking-sticks and wheelchairs at Ratana pa testified to his success.

From the beginning of his public mission, Ratana was criticised. Eyewitnesses who attended his meetings said they had seen no cures, and the reports of miracles were often second-hand. Even the famous cure by letter of Fanny Lammas was said to be through auto-suggestion. Accusations were made that sick followers were refusing to visit doctors. Orthodox Christians claimed Ratana was worshipping angels.

The King movement leader, Tupu Taingakawa, was among those who challenged him in 1920 to care for the sicknesses of the land as well as those of the body. Ratanas response was that first it was necessary to unite the people in the worship of Jehovah.

On 18 March 1924 Ratana and his family visited Mt Taranaki and Parihaka. Beside a stream on the mountain he heard a voice repeating words of Titokowaru, and encountered at Parihaka sayings left by Te Whiti and Tohu that foretold that he must take his spiritual message to the wider world.

Ratana Church at Mangamuka Left and right towers are Arepa and Omeka. Note the crescent moon and star on each tower. Ratana believed the Maori and the Japanese were lost tribes of Israel. Mormons likewise believe the Amerindians are a lost tribe. Ratana visited the Japanese their peoples were formally married there. Much later during World War II, Jews were welcomed into Japan where the Makuyo sect still claims a relationship with Judaism. A 'Davidic star' appears on the Ise shrine.

A breach with orthodox religions developed over the years, provoking intense theological debates at Ratana pa. Initially, Ratana had discouraged attempts to deify him, but within two years the Ratana formula for the godhead included the Mangai, as well as Father, Son and Holy Spirit. Ratana began to refer to other churches as introduced to New Zealand by gentiles, and therefore not fit for his people. In the early 1920s the Mangai had often prayed publicly in the name of Jesus; in the 1930s this practice was dropped and the Mangai himself was sometimes regarded as the kaiwhakaora (saviour). Both his sons Arepa (Alpha) and Omeka (Omega), always regarded as imbued with spiritual forces, died early in the 1930s, and not long afterwards the Mangai began to encourage his followers to regard them as Ratana saints or mediators.The final straw for the orthodox was that Ratana abandoned monogamy. In 1925, encouraged by Te Urumanaao, he took a second, much younger, wife to protect him against the infatuation of thousands of admiring women; this was Iriaka Te Rio, one of the dance troupe of girls who had travelled with Ratana. He had two children by her. Te Urumanaao was known from this time by the title, Te Whaea o te Katoa (the mother of all).

"On his first overseas trip Ratana had returned via Japan, visiting a Japanese Christian bishop. Relations with the Japanese had been very good; it was the highlight of the trip. Ratana thought that both Maori and Japanese were among the lost tribes of Israel. A marriage between two of his party took place in Japan, the ceremony presided over by a Japanese bishop".

"The idea grew that Ratana had married the Maori race to the Japanese race, had enlisted their support for Maori grievances and had prophesied the coming of worldwide war between the non-white and white races. He was accused of brandishing a Japanese Dagger and flying the Japanese flag at Ratana pa. Eyewitnesses denied these stories, and Ratana himself gave a speech describing his familys loyalty to the Crown, but some Maori leaders grew concerned and reported their fears to the government. When Pita Moko issued an official denial and published the text of Ratanas new covenant to demonstrate that the church was not disloyal, some morehu were disappointed at what they regarded as a betrayal and withdrew from the movement. Ratanas healing power, as he had predicted, was deserted him, although Pita Moko continued to report some cures".

In 1928 he decided that four of his followers should stand for Parliament. He could see that government money was spent to help Pakeha New Zealanders and he wanted a strong voice for ordinary Maoris in Parliament. The first Ratana Member of Parliament was Eruera Tirikatene, who won Southern Maori in a by-election in 1932. When Labour won the 1935 election Ratana went to see the Prime Minister, "Micky" Savage, at Parliament Buildings. He placed on the table, a potato, a broken gold watch, a greenstone tiki, and a huia feather. Savage looked at these things and asked Ratana to explain what they meant. The potato was the ordinary Maori who needed his land because "a potato cannot grow without soil". The watch was broken, like the law which protected Maori land; the law of the new government must repair the broken law of the old one. The tiki stood for the spirit of the Maori. If Savage protected the Maori people he would earn the right to wear the huia feather, which was the sign of a chief. Since Ratana's visit to Savage most Maoris have supported the Labour Party, and all four seats have been Labour since 1943. The votes of Maori members twice kept Labour Governments in power, 1946-49 and 1957-60. Ratana died on 18 September 1939. His message to his people was that they could survive in a Pakeha world - even in the cities. The angels would strengthen those who believed. The Ratana religion gave them confidence and Ratana's practical advice helped them to manage in the modern world.

The mission of T.W. Ratana had two aspects - these having been pointed to in the first sign of the beaching of the two whales. The first was the spiritual aspect. This was symbolized in two ways - by the whale which lay still on the sand and represented the soul, and by Arepa (Alpha) one of the twin sons of the Mangai. In 1928, the running of the church was handed over to the committee which had been set up. Ratana announced that from then on his spiritual mission was completed and his material works were to begin. Arepa who was a young man of eighteen recognized that his life was over, and after a long illness died in the last minutes of the year 1930. The second aspect, the material work, was symbolized by Omeka (Omega) the other twin son; and also by the second whale which had thrashed around for some time before dying and therefore represented the body and "the conflicts between the Movement and the rest of society. Ratana saw this part of his function centred mainly on the promotion of recognition of the promises included in the Treaty of Waitangi. This included a long campaign to have Ratana candidates elected to the four Maori seats in Parliament. The first was elected in a by-election in 1932, a second in 1935, and by 1943 all four seats were held by Ratana members, a state that continued for twenty years until 1963. When Eruera Tirikatene succeeded to the House he took Omeka into the debating chamber in order to show that the material aim was now accomplished. The second twin's purpose was then completed - he went to bed and died that November.

The Mangai himself died on 18 September 1939 having passed on the responsibility of continuing his spiritual and material works to his eldest son Tokouru and others of his family.

Lands of the Dispersion: Polynesia, Tonga, Samoa, Hawaii, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands

An early Polynesian grammar published by a minister of another religion remarks on how the author was struck by the great similarities between the Polynesian and Hebrew languages. In the dedicatory prayer of the New Zealand Temple, President McKay made clear that the indigenous inhabitants of the region were descendants of Lehi: 'We express gratitude that to these fertile Islands thou didst guide descendants of Father Lehi and hast enabled them to prosper.'

These people are descendants of Hagoth, who left the people of Nephi. Their story is told in the book of Alma: And it came to pass that in the thirty and seventh year of the reign of the judges, there was a large company of men, even to the amount of five thousand and four hundred men, with their wives and their children, departed out of the land of Zarahemla into the land which was northward. nd it came to pass that Hagoth, he being an exceedingly curious man, therefore he went forth and built him an exceedingly large ship, on the borders of the land Bountiful, by the land Desolation, and launched it forth into the west sea, by the narrow neck which led into the land northward. And behold, there were many of the Nephites who did enter therein and did sail forth with much provisions, and also many women and children; and they took their course northward. And thus ended the thirty and seventh year. And in the thirty and eighth year, this man built other ships. And the first ship did also return, and many more people did enter into it; and they also took much provisions, and set out again to the land northward.

And it came to pass that they were never heard of more. And we suppose that they were drowned in the depths of the sea. And it came to pass that one other ship also did sail forth; and whither she did go we know not. And it came to pass that in this year there were many people who went forth into the land northward. And thus ended the thirty and eighth year. (Alma 63:4-9) It is likely that many of these individuals were descendants of Joseph, the son of Lehi, whom Lehi blessed: 'And now, Joseph, my last-born, whom I have brought out of the wilderness of mine afflictions, may the Lord bless thee forever, for thy seed shall not utterly be destroyed.' (2 Nephi 3:3-4) 

The Polynesians - including the Samoans, Tongans, Hawaiians, New Zealanders, and others - are descendants of the Nephites and Josephites, with varying degrees of intermixing with other peoples. Among these island nations, we find the highest rates of church membership in the world, fulfilling the Lord's special promise towards those upon 'the isles of the sea' (which includes North and South America as used by Jacob): And now, my beloved brethren, seeing that our merciful God has given us so great knowledge concerning these things, let us remember him, and lay aside our sins, and not hang down our heads, for we are not cast off; nevertheless, we have been driven out of the land of our inheritance; but we have been led to a better land, for the Lord has made the sea our path, and we are upon an isle of the sea. But great are the promises of the Lord unto them who are upon the isles of the sea; wherefore as it says isles, there must needs be more than this, and they are inhabited also by our brethren. 2 Nephi 10:20-21

Tonga - 38% LDS (40,000 members of 106,000) Western Samoa - 25% LDS (56,000 members out of 225,000) American Samoa - 15% LDS (12,000 members out of 80,000)

In nations like New Zealand, where the descendants of Hagoth are heavily mixed with other groups, membership is relatively lower as a percentage of the overall population but is still high. The Philipinos share many characteristics of the Pacific Island people and they appear to be a mix of Nephites from the East with Asian people from the West.

New Zealand 2.53% (86,000/3,405,000) French Polynesia 1.5% (15,000/1,000,000) Fiji 1.20% (12,000/1,000,000) Philippines 0.53% (389,000/74,000,000)

Christ in the Pacific Islands

Polynesian traditions of Lono the bearded, robed white God.

Even in the Pacific

We know that there was a white race in Polynesia anciently too as recorded in minute detail in
Heyerdahl's American Indians in the Pacific. The brown Polynesians saw themselves as being the middle caste, the Melanesians as being the lowest caste and the blonde and red-headed peoples as the most beautiful - "angels" (This would prove that western Europeans are Israelites). They venerated the white skin, seeing it as the highest ideal of beauty.

Even some of the aboriginal tribes of New Zealand were whites, with blonde or red hair. The Maori invaders slew them and intermarried with the remnants. 

The early visitors of the second wave of Whites to the Pacific over the last 200 years, have been "struck" by the Hebrew and Chaldean teachings in the region, including the similarities to the Old Testament accounts regarding creation, the Noahicean flood and so on. Their lighter skinned leaders had much in common with the ancient Israelites.

The customs of the Maoris are quite remarkably similar to that of the Hebrews. These included similar ceremonial and dietary rules, a Jubilee Year and a sacred harvest month, similar to the Hebrew month of Tishri which featured the Feast of Ingathering or Tabernacles.


Where Have All the Children…(of Israel) Gone?

While the reports of and research into Northern Europe and Central Asia has received the most speculation, the actual ingathering of the Jews of Ethiopia, the Falash Mura and the Bnai Menashe of India has merited the most actual response. However, the least known—but hardly the least fascinating—of all chronicled movements, has surfaced in the islands of the South Pacific.

their ancient tribal ancestor was Avram Pamu. He left a legacy not to kill, steal, take another man’s wife or tell lies.

several legends in their tribal lore bore fascinating overtones of the Genesis account—the first parents, the flood, the tower of Babel and shades of Jacob and Esau.

Never mind that abba was the word for father in the dialect.

But even more striking similarities are the Semitic facial features in these and related Highland tribes, quite in contrast to African or even coastal Melanesian identity in the hundreds of other tribes that comprise the linguistic collage that is Papua New Guinea.

we have encountered even more intriguing signposts pointing toward a mixture of Middle East origins within the Pacific Islands.

In Malaita of the Solomon Islands are the sacred stones that have long bourn the legend of being ancient altars modeled after Abraham’s covenantal passage into Canaan.

when a sharp public servant in the Republic of Vanuatu stumbled upon this information in my book, he was ecstatic for the corroboration of what he had already read.

He excitedly photocopied and mailed me several pages of a pre-WW2 book by Dr. J. Graham Miller, a Presbyterian missionary in the New Hebrides [now Vanuatu] from 1941-1972. Dr. Miller documented from his earliest contacts, that he was astounded to learn from the very primitive natives that they had long associated their origins with the “ten lost tribes of Israel”. Moreover, in the Vakamai dialect of the Shepherd Tribe, the name they had reported to their earliest missionaries for their “high God” was Yehova Ariki; while in another distant island, the tribe there had identified their “high God” as Iehowa Asori.  These names, of course, had been rooted in those languages before Western contact. 

Miller also discovered that circumcision was widely practiced throughout the New Hebrides! (Interestingly Hebrides is regarded as coming from the word Hebrew as well. The Hebrews would found the Hebrides & their British offspring the New Hebrides that happened to be people by another branch of Hebrews).

Where Did We Come From?

Then came the flow of stories from my Tari friends.  It seems one Abram Pamu was one of the most revered if not the greatest of their Huli ancestors.  He was the one who passed on to them some of the high moral standards that have subsequently been lost in the colonial period when young Hulis by the thousands thronged to the plantations and to the cities to follow a new god initially known as the Pound.  It was later renamed the Dola, only to finally end with a more cultural name, the all powerful Kina.

But patriarch Abram Pamu’s original wisdom passed on the ancestors was quite to the contrary, “Do not steal; do not kill; do not steal another man’s wife; do not tell lies.”  It appears that Abram Pamu’s moral heritage has long been forgotten with the newer enthusiasms of politics, democracy and so called development!

Moreover, the Huli people were otherwise tribally known as the Hela people, a most fascinating disclosure to a linguist.  The ‘h’ is a form of aspiration that is easily added or dropped in the linguistic evolution of any language.  The all significant ‘el’ therefore becomes the stable segment of the name.  El is the common Hebrew term for God.  El Shaddi means “God Almighty” as many Christians well know, and the name Israel itself means “to struggle with God.”  Is it only a remote coincidence or does the name Hela actually carry some ancient significance along with the patriarch of ages past, Abram Pamu?

Absorbed as I was with the insights from these Tari pilgrims in Jerusalem, probing into this mystery was hardly new to me.  To the contrary.  It only deeply reinforced my assumptions from three decades of cultural and linguistic identity among the Waola people, the Huli’s nearest tribal neighbors to the east.

My earliest impressions among the Waolas as a linguist, Bible translator and  Bible teacher was that I was not really telling these people a totally new concept about the God of the Bible.

To the Waola people, as well as with their neighbors, it was the God of their ancestors.

Then there were those physical features that are such a diversity in the Highlands.  There are the incredibly light skins that have no linkage with any sort of European ancestry mixed together with a further spectrum of pigments from medium to dark.  In the literature from the first patrols to enter into the Tari Basin in the 1930s, this is one of the recorded observations that was an utter amazement to the puzzled explorers.

Moreover, the variety of facial features has long been a focus of my own fascination.  Some of the noses in the Southern Highlands are of undeniably Semitic quality.  I have a treasured photograph of an old Bedouin chieftain sitting in his tent.  He could most assuredly pass for a “cousin brother” of one of my intimate Waola friends.  Their respective noses unquestionably had to come from the same back pocket of the Creator!

The Huli word for father is aba.  Our Waola word next door is ab, while the dialects even further to the east of us are a variation from aba to abu.  As Bible scholars well know, the Hebrew word for father is also abba, and the Arabic word is the closely related, abu.  Likewise our Waola word for mountain is har.  The Hebrew is identical even to the characteristic rolled “r”.  Mount Zion is Har Sion.  Obviously there is much of the linguistics that are not related, and this observation is most certainly the weakest side of the argument.  But there are some interesting similarities.  By contrast, perhaps, the strongest linkage of all is the oral literature—the tribal stories of our Waola family.

Time and again as we translated stories from the Old testament, our people would say, “Yes, we know that one.”  To be sure, their versions were slightly different when they told them, but a basic pattern of the original story always seemed to be present.  How could the story possibly stay intact with no literacy and even being passed on by word of mouth for several thousand years?  The amazing aspect is that they remained as close to the original as they did!  We have a very close parallel story of the Great Flood, and a good replica of the account of Jacob and Esau.  And there was the one which approximated the Tower of Babel. 

The classic is a story bearing resemblance to the original account of Adam and Eve.  The first man and the first woman had given birth to a baby boy.  The father instructed the mother not to feed him from her breast; he would go to the garden and bring back a saonim, a popular local edible gourd, which when the child would eat it, he would live forever.  When the father had gone, the child became hungry and began to cry.  The mother being loving and caring, disregarded the father’s word and fed her son from the breast.  When the father returned he was acutely aware that his word had been violated.  As the mother confessed her deed, the father declared, “And now we have lost eternal life!”  Anyone who knows the Genesis account has little problem in seeing the relationship; the woman, something not to be eaten that was eaten, and the resultant loss of eternal life.

I understand that this tale has its equivalent as far away from its biblical source as the Southern Highlands, as I am sure do many of the others.  I can only speak for the cultural lore of the Waola people with which I am thoroughly familiar.  What we do of course know, is that linguistically all of the Highlands are related.

Hydes and O’Malley, the original explorers who in 1937 trekked through the Tari Basin, across the rugged homeland of the Waolas, south down the Lai River Valley and into the headwaters of the Kikori River, left a distinctive account of their experiences in the book, Papuan Wonderland.  It was uniquely complete with even bits of notation of linguistic terms from both the Huli and Waola languages.  The old black and white photographs pinpointed many cultural identities and locations through which they had passed.  Was it by accident that this patrol crossed the Waga River less than 10km from my current home in Waola country near Margarima?  They included a very clear photograph of the great grandparents of my present neighbors and captioned them, “The black Pharaohs of Papua”.  This was indeed a tribute to the regal way in which my Waola friends presented themselves to the first outsiders.  Moreover, they made an observation as to their possible identity that just doesn’t seem to go away!

Is it possible that Papua New Guinea does in reality have an ancient link with the sons of Abraham—or as the Huli Tribe called him, Abram Pamu?

Ancient Israelites in Hawaii


Tribes breakdown

Naphtali (Polynesians; Aborigines of Fiji Islands, Hawaiian Islanders)
Genesis 49:21 “Naphtali is a hind let loose: he giveth goodly words.”

Naphtali was part of the 10 tribes who came over to the Americas during the time of the Assyrian captivity. The name Naphtali means “My wrestling”

When it says “Naphtali is a hind let loose” Just like a deer motion via up and down – The Polys travelled through the oceans, from island to island. The motion represents the sea movement. This is also talking about how free and wild the Polynesians are. They are some of the most, free people in the world. You see this from their dancing, their ceremonies and the way they’re customs are.

“…he giveth goodly words.” The people of the Polynesian Islands speak very goodly words, Like Aloha/Hello by the Hawaiians, Kia Kaha/Stand Strong by the Aotearoa, Fa’Amalosi/Be strong by the Samoans. They are known for their Good words and respect.

Deu 33:23 “And of Naphtali he said, O Naphtali, satisfied with fauour, and full with the blessing of the Lord: possesse thou the West and the South.” “And of Naphtali he said, O Naphtali, satisfied with fauour, and full with the blessing of the Lord:” Their Land is Beautifyl and it gives things such as coconuts, Taro and other food of blessing.

The tribe of Naphtali was very blessed. When it says “…possesse thou the West and the South”, Jacob was telling the exact place where they would dwell in the last days. They would be located in the southern Hemisphere, and that word “West” in the Hebrew is a word Yam {Yawm Strongs #3220} means A large body of Water, west (-ward). The tribe of Naphtali would possess land in the Southern Hemisphere surrounded by a large body of water westward. They possess Chili in the South of America, and West of Chili is South Pacific. History shows they were in Chili and are now in the South Pacific.


HEBREW SIMILARITIES

The following are just a few examples:— Hawaiian. English. Greek.
mele a song     aroha love     arii a chief “Ap>jc.     rani the heavens ovpav6s.     mahina the moon ^v.

The similarity of sound in the last example is greater than is at first apparent. When the universal terminal vowel is thrown off, the two first syllables, pronounced quickly, come very near the Greek word for month. The three words which in the list contain the letter r, lose their resemblance to the Greek when written with an I, which has been invariably substituted in modern orthography for the former letter.

The number of customs among the Hawaiians corresponding to Hebrew practices is admitted at once to be very remarkable. But even if such proofs were considered strong enough to substantiate the fact of Jews having reached the islands, it would not necessitate an emigration from the Mediterranean; the probability would be as great of their course having been in the opposite direction. As, however, the tribes of North America have been claimed to have a Hebrew origin, the points of Jewish resemblance may be properly enumerated here. These consisted of:

1. Circumcision, which, previous to the establishment of the American missionaries, was commonly practised among the natives as a religious ceremony.
2. Separation and purification of women after childbirth, &c., enforced under penalty of death.
3. Cities of refuge,—an institution found in no other heathen nation.
4. Pollution by touching a dead body, and purification therefrom by religious ceremonies.
5. Offering of the first-fruits to their gods.
6. Wearing sackcloth in mourning.
7. The custom of the chiefs of washing their hands before and after eating.
8. Traditions resembling those in the Hebrew Scriptures.
9. A resemblance which Mr. Dibble perceived between the poetry of the Hebrews and the Hawaiians; and a structural likeness in the two languages, especially in the causative form of the Hawaiian verb, which is precisely the same as the Hiphil of the Hebrew.*

Of the similarity of the native traditions to the histories of the Old Testament, the following examples will serve; and they are probably the most striking that Mr. Dibble could adduce. Hawaiian tradition relates, that man was originally made of the dust of the earth, by Kane and Kanaloa, two of their principal deities.

In the story of Waikelenuiaiku, we have a pretty close counterpart of that of Joseph. His father had ten
* ‘ The Hawaiians have no auxiliary verb “to be;” there are no variations in nouns for case, number, or person ; but the moods and tenses of verbs are pretty clearly distinguished by simple prefixes an.l suffixes. The mode of conjugating verbs, the existence of a causative form, and the derivation of words from roots of two syllables, arc thought to indicate a resemblance and cognate origin with the Hebrew and other Oriental tongues.’—Chccver, Life in the S. Islands. London. 1851.

Mr. Cheever also remarks a coincidence relating to the very frequent addition of the word wai to names of places, and the similar addition in the East of wadf, both words meaning water,—the changed Hawaiian form arising from a consistent rejection of consonants where practicable.


“That’s from the Hebrew word, Kohen, priest, I said to myself. ManyKohenim (plural of Kohen) have the family name Kahane, very similar to kahuna.“

A.Word.A.Day–kahuna

This week’s theme: words borrowed from other languages.

kahuna (kuh-HOO-nuh) noun

1. A priest or a medicine man.

2. An important person (usually in the phrase: big kahuna).
[From Hawaiian kahuna. Hawaiian is a Polynesian language spoken in the Hawaiian islands in the Pacific. The number of native speakers of the language has decreased to just a few hundred.]


Israel in Polynesia

"My great grandfather, Opapo, knew what our genealogy was because he was to be king. When he found the Mormon missionaries on the beach, he began to teach yhem the Samoan language & they taught him English from the Book of Mormon. When the BoM got to the end of Alma right before 3rd Nephi & began to talk about Hagoth & the building of ships, my great grandfather stopped the missionaries".

The beginning of the building of Hagoth's ships was around 55 BC & probably continued for years since. I'm not certain what Hagoth's name was in the Plynesian language, but this illustrtes the knowledge that the Polynesians retained of this key person mentioned in the records that make up a part of the Book of Mormon.

He asked them how this information got into a white man's book because only the royal family knew about father Hagoth & where we were from. He knew about all the wars & the reason our people were fleeing the area south & going north by sea. My grandfather used to have a stone that he carried with him, but I don't where it is now. I've only seen it once. This indicates that there are some more ancient records comparable to the ones used to compile the Book of Mormon from various parts of Polynesia that are soon to come forth in due time.

Jesus visited the ancient BoM lands, including parts of Polynesia & this will come forth in due time also. After His visit to the ancient Americas about 34 AD, after His resurection He went on to visit other peoples of the world, including those in the islands at the time, to establish His church among all the world's "other sheep" & these records will come forth for the world.

Has the Hawaiian Kahuna anything to do with Jewish Kohen?


One of the most abused Hawaiian words and concepts is the word kahuna. Nowadays, the word is used in slang to mean an expert surfer, an influential person ("the big kahuna"), a shaman, and a large hamburger. However, none of these definitions are correct. However, The Hawaiian Dictionary as edited by Mary Kawena Pukui and considered the standard dictionary on the Hawaiian language lists the following definitions:

1. Priest, sorcerer, magician, wizard, minister, expert in any profession (whether male or female); in the 1845 laws doctors, surgeons, and dentists were called kahuna. See kahu and many examples below; for plural see kāhuna. hoʻo.kahuna To cause to be a kahuna or pretend to be one; to ordain or train as a kahuna. (PPN tufunga, PCP t(a, o)funga.)

Note how surfing, shamans, and hamburgers are not listed. According to the observations of Captain Cook in 1778, he noted that there were several types of kahuna and several kahuna priesthoods each one headed by a kahuna nui. There was one particular type of high ranking kahuna who was considered so sacred that not even Captain Cook could meet with. Captain Cook compared this high official "....like the Delai Lama of Thibet". French and later English explorers mention the same observations. Captain Vancouver in 1790 goes on to talk about several existing kahuna nui.



In 1819, a power struggle began between the practitioners of the old Hawaiian religion and the new regime of Ka`ahumanu. With the defeat of Kekuaokalani, a kahuna nui of the Kū line of priests and kahu (guardian) the Kūka`ilimoku temples at the Battle of Kuamo`o, the Hawaiian religion was systemically destroyed and many of the kahuna were killed, burned, or forced to give up their religion thus ending a power struggle between the priests and the nobility that began a thousand years earlier. In stories of Moloka`i, over 800 kahuna were burned alive in a single day. Later in 1824 when Ka`ahumanu had adopted Christianity and later imposed it throughout the Hawaiian Kingdom, even claiming to be a kahuna was declared illegal. Under King Kamehameha V, certain kahuna were allowed to be licensed under the Board of Health. With the reign of King Kalākaua, the laws against the kahuna were not heavily enforced and some of the lines were resurrected. After 1893, the kahuna again became illegal and later this began to be repealed in court cases in the 1960s and finally in 1978 with the new state constitution.

The Ancient Hawaiian Religion

According to certain legends, the very ancient ancestors had a very simple devotion. Normally this revolved around female and male elements known as Hina and Kū respectively. Sometimes the Kū element--which should not be confused with the war god of the same name--was also called Kūhiwa or simply Hiwa which means "Shining One" particularly on the island of Moloka`i. Hina could mean fall or to wane and is one of the roots for the word wahine (possibly from wai and Hina or water of Hina) meaning woman. Gradually, other akua or deities began to emerge bsuch as Kane, the sun god and who on some islands was considered an deity of certain lands (particularly of flat lands and paddies) similar to Malagasy mythology, and Kanaloa, the god of the ocean. However, with each god, there was a complimentary opposite and a complete opposite. Kūs female complimentary opposite was Hina and his male opposite was Lono.

Slowly a pantheon of deities emerged called the Nā Kini Akua (the 40,000 deities) coinciding with the increase in the Hawaiian population. What is interesting about that term is that Kini also could mean body or body-form implying that the deities were parts of the same single body, similar to Balinese Hindu concept of the many gods that was one or "one god many faces". According to the Hawaiian scholar Kepelino, the last god to brought into the Hawaiian Nā Kini Akua was Lono who came via the island of Lana`i and is one of the reasons why Kamehameha I after his conquest of the entire Hawaiian Islands made pilgrimages to Lana`i. In addition to these deities, there were a number of deified persons including Kihāwahine and in some accounts, Wakea.


In the 12th or 13th century, there began religious movements from the South Pacific. On one hand, there was the Ari`oi movement in Tahiti and Borabora which placed an emphasize on the deity Oro or known as Lono in Hawai`i. The ari`oi movement also placed a strong attachment to ritualism, blood offerings, and loyalty to a secret society--similar to the Greek mystery cults--called the ari`oi. The ari`oi  were open to individuals regardless of a person's class provided that they were sponsored into the society. This was revolutionary in the society at that time. The society of Tahiti (and most of Eastern Polynesia) at the time consisted of three tier society consisting of ariki (ali'i or nobility), raatira (free persons, artists, offspring of mixed nobility, etc), and the manahune (farmers, fishermen, etc). The term manahune in Hawaiian became menehune and both terms have the same root words: mana (inheritance or power) and hune (pitiful, little, impoverished or diminished). So for many of the raatira and manahune classes, to be a member of the ari`oi was a way for upward social mobility. Gradually the ari`oi enjoyed immunity from most taboos and became a class unto themselves.



On the Western side of Polynesia in Samoa, a complex political and social class system was put in place. This class system placed a heavy emphasis on blood lines, monument building, veneration of royalty, and spiritual purity. This coincided with the rise of power of the Tu`i Manu`a ("Paramount King/Emperor/High Lord of Manu`a"), which was based in what is now American Samoa. The political influence of the Tu`i Manu`a extended from Samoa to Fiji, Tonga, and Rarotonga. From these two movements within Polynesia came Pa`ao.

Pa'ao

Pa'ao was a priest and navigator who according to most sources was Samoan but had studied religion in Ra`iatea (the seat of learning in the South Pacific in that era) or in Tahiti. After a period of traveling around the Pacific, he came to Hawai`i and saw what he believed was the lack of religiosity among Hawaiians. Hawaiian society at that time was far less rigid than Tahiti and Samoa and religion was kept simple. According to the Hawaiian historian David Malogion in Ra`iatea (the seat of learning in the South Pacific in that era) or in Tahiti. After a period of traveling around the Pacific, he came to Hawai`i and saw what he believed was the lack of religiosity among Hawaiians. Hawaiian society at that time was far less rigid than Tahiti and Samoa and religion was kept simple. According to David Malo:



We are informed (by historical tradition) that two men named Paao and Makua-kaumana, with a company of others, voyaged hither, observing the stars as a compass; and that Paao remained in Kohala, while Makua-Kaumana returned to Tahiti. Paao arrived at Hawaii during the reign of Lono-ka-wai, the king of Hawaii. He (Lono-ka-wai) was the sixteenth in that line of kings, succeeding Kapawa. Paao continued to live in Kohala until the kings of Hawaii became degraded and corrupted (hewa); then he sailed away to Tahiti to fetch a king from thence. Pili (Kaaiea) was that king and he became one in Hawaii's line of kings (papa alii).

At the same time he returned with Pili, he introduced major reforms into the Hawaiian religious system including adopting certain features of the ari'oi, more complicated religious practices (including the use of blood offerings), and monumental temple building. However, in making reforms to the priestly line, Pa`ao subjected the priests to the nobility by bringing an emphasize on the Papa and Wakea mythology. At the time of Pa`ao's arrival, the priestly lines were for all purposes independent of the chiefs. All lands that had the word "Wai" in their names were previously governed by priests. The priests or kahuna had developed a monastic way of life and in many ways distant from the chiefs and the common people. Pa`ao brought the kahuna out of their lands and incorporated them into the life of the royal court. However, the kahuna were able to regain some independence after Pa`ao including having permanent lands and tributes for their temples and shrines. Overtime, the strict reforms made by Pa`ao was loosened by Hawaiians themselves but the changes made by Pa`ao shows that Polynesian societies, like all societies, change with time and are not stagnant museum pieces.

Big Kahuna = Cohen Gadol = High Priest 


From Cain’s murder of Abel, on throughout the Bible, violence and justice recur. Rules like "one who sheds the blood of man, by man shall his blood be shed" establish the ultimate punishment for ultimate crime.

The Torah even recognizes the ancient practice of the avenger, the goel hadam -- literally the "blood redeemer" who took responsibility to kill whoever killed his kinsman. Of course the court required two eye witnesses to confirm guilt. Two or three, never one. And no circumstantial evidence was considered. Even that standard was extended to require that someone warn the killer before he struck. After a court convicted a murderer, the ancient custom still gave this blood redeemer the right to execute him.


But suppose the killing was an accident? Manslaughter, yes, but not willful murder? The Torah  cites the classic example of two men who go into the forest to chop down trees. One swings his axe, and the iron head flies off the wooden handle and kills his friend. Shall he be exposed to the vengeance of the victim’s brother? After all, says the Torah, "he did not hate [the victim] yesterday or the day before."


No premeditated crime. No crime at all, really. A tragic accident. And so in two passages -- one in Deuteronomy 19 and one in Numbers 35, we find the commandment to designate Cities of Refuge where the inadvertent killer can go and be safe and the blood redeemer cannot follow him.
Arey miklat they were called.  Miklat -- refuge or shelter, the same word used in Israel today for an air-raid shelter. Moses sets up three such refuge cities east of the Jordan, and commands the people to add three more after they enter the Land. There the manslayer can flee and stay until the death of the High Priest, after which the blood redeemer will have no further right to take his life.


These ancient laws give us a handle on some basic concepts of right and wrong, fairness to the suspect, and at the same time a realistic way to deal with primitive human emotions like revenge. Surely that poor fellow with the faulty axe faced an awful change in his life, from independent woodsman to cowering fugitive. But he was alive. And the victim’s brother had to deal with his family’s loss without a violent vengeance that certainly could not bring back the victim of that tragic accident.

Ancient history? Sure. Or is it?


If you go to Hawaii, take a little excursion to some of the state parks and you will probably find one of them in a cave that is accessible only by water. I found that one particularly interesting. Getting out of the boat, we walked through the cave, and saw a diorama that an artist executed on one wall. It showed that cave’s importance to the old Hawaiians. The cave was a special place where a fugitive killer could go and be safe -- until the death of the Big Kahuna.




Unbelievable, I thought. An exact parallel to the Cities of Refuge in the Torah! So I contacted an old friend of mine, Rabbi Julius Nodel of blessed memory who at that time was the only rabbi in Hawaii, and we talked about it.


"That’s not all," he told me.  Not only does "kahuna" sound like "cohen", but a University of Hawaii researcher found some 500 words in the Hawaiian language that have parallel sound and meaning to those words in Hebrew. Like "makana" -- a gift. Hebrew being "matana" -- the Hawaiian language substitutes K for T since it has no T sound. How did all this happen? Are the Hawaiians the mysterious lost tribes of Israel? Not exactly. But some historians deduce that when Polynesians adventured north to explore and later populate the Hawaiian islands, they had to cross many hundreds of miles of open ocean, and they needed some skilled navigators. At that time, the best navigators in the Pacific were Jews. They apparently stayed with their Polynesian employers in their new Hawaiian home, and left their mark.

The Bonds of Maori and Jewish Culture

It is believed that the Maori, those supposedly indigenous New Zealanders, migrated to that island country in the 13th century from Hawaii. It is also believed that they may have a Jewish connection. Why a Jewish connection? A Jerusalem Post article by David Cohen examines the question. According to an English colonialist in New Zealand in 1819, the Maoris evolved from a Lost Tribe of Israel, given their trading skills, their concept of God, and the similarity of roles between Maori elders and rabbis. Other 19th century Christian missionaries compiled 38 factors that tied the Maoris to Jews, including menstrual, death and war customs. (Their Jewish noses were also specifically pointed out.) In the 1830s, influenced by the Old Testament of the Bible the missionaries had brought, a Maori warrior named Te Atua Wera founded a movement characterizing the Maoris as a Lost Tribe of Israel chosen by God.

Another Maori warrior who identified with the Jews, Te Ua Haumene, spared the lives of the (mainstream) Jewish traders in the towns he captured. A Judaism-based Maori religion, the Ringatu Church, provided the inspiration for a recent best-selling novel, The Season of the Jew, by New Zealand author Maurice Shadbolt. The Ringatu Church (the word Ringatu means “the upraised hand,” after the hands in a blessing by Jewish priests) is waiting for the messiah, requires memorization of lengthy biblical passages which must be recited perfectly, and holds services on the 12th day of each month. It is true that the Maori are interested in Judaism and Israel. An official of the Israeli Embassy in Wellington is quoted as saying, “From both sides, Maori and Jewish, it’s obvious that we share common beliefs and historical myths. Ours is a close friendship.”

As part of the Jerusalem 3000 observance, the Maori queen was among the Israeli officials who planted commemorative olive trees in New Zealand. Three Maori settlements are named after Jerusalem, and other hamlets are called Judea, Canaan, and Babylon. A few newly urbanized Maoris are converting to Judaism, some with a view toward reclaiming part of their history, others not. Cohen interviewed one such Maori convert, Steve Daniels, 34, who had always “felt an empathy with things Jewish” and described his conversion to Judaism “like coming home.” Other Maoris are identifying with the Jewish people in their movement for national self-determination and for a revitalized Maori language.

The Origin of the Maori

“We came from Hawaiki-the-Great from Haiwaiki-the-Long, from Hawaiki-the-Distant.” Maori Legend.

“The fame of your canoes can never be dimmed! The canoes which crossed the ocean depths, the purple sea, the Great-Ocean-of-Kiwa, which lay stretched before them.” Maori Lament (Sir Peter Buck).

“Turn again your face to the shadowy land from which we came, to the homes of our ancestors far away, to the great Hawaiki, to long Hawaiki, to Hawaiki-of-great-distance.”

Who are the Maoris? Where did they come from? The Rev. J. Watkin, in his report to the Missionary Society, London, states that their “traditions as well as their language show them to have had an origin common with the Polynesians.” The problem has occupied the careful attention of the historian and the ethnologist for very many years, and although there are diversities of opinion, it is generally agreed that the Maori is a Polynesian with a blend of Melanesian blood. The latter connects him with the dark-skinned peoples of New Guinea and the adjacent islands. The ancestry of the Maori, however, may be traced much further back than to the islands of the Pacific. James Cowan in The Maori Yesterday and Today quotes from a Maori chant as follows: “I came from Great Distance, from Long-Distance, from very-Distant-Places — from Hawaiki.” “This formula,” says Mr. Cowan, “summarises the Maori idea of the migration of his ancestors, from one Tawhiti or Hawaiki to another, across the island-strewn Pacific.”

The tradition of the last migration from Tahiti and adjacent islands is illuminating. The tohungas have preserved these facts in detail from the last of the Hawaikis up to the arrival of their ancestors to New Zealand. “Hawaiki” means “the distant home” and refers to any place from which the Maori came in their ancient wanderings.

The Polynesian ancestry may be traced back to a distant Hawaiki—probably to the northern shores of the Persian Gulf and to the early inhabitants of Asia. Mr. Cowan, in Maoris of New Zealand, says that the Maori-Polynesian is a branch, though a distant one, of the Caucasian race and that this view is now generally accepted by scientific investigators. If this is correct, the Maori can therefore claim a connection with the ancient Chaldeans, the Phoenicians, the Babylonians, the Hebrews and the Arabs.

Mr. R. J. Casey states that the ancestors of the Polynesians, in the dim past, came from Ur in Chaldea, the land of the two rivers, the Euphrates and the Tigris.1 That there is some link of connection between the Maori and Hebrew and Semitic race is suggested by the Jewish features seen in some of the Maoris. Taiaroa of Otakou, for instance, had a striking Jewish cast of features. Many of the Maori customs resemble Jewish practices. The law of utu, satisfaction or payment for an injury, “an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth” seems to compare with ancient Jewish traditions. Tapu, sacred, set apart or under restriction, is another resemblance.

Certain of the Maori customs remind one of the marriage customs described in the Old Testament. A comparison of the Jewish ceremonial law, as embodied in the Old Testament Scriptures, with the customs of the Maori people, presents many points of agreement.

1 Easter Island, by R. J. Casey.

The Rev. R. Taylor mentions some of the resemblances: “the younger brother taking his elder brother's widow as a wife. The nearest male relation marrying the widow of the deceased husband who had no brother living, as Obed married Ruth; the elder brother caring for his sister as his right; the touching of food; God present in the whirlwind; all unclean who touched a corpse; the custom of betrothing infants, and the weeping and lamentation over the death of a friend.”

Watkin writes in his Journal, “When a New Zealander dies his wife is taken by his brother.” Many other resemblances could be mentioned. The Rev. Charles Creed mentions that a priest “is particularly interested in Christianity and compares the sacred history with their own traditions, remarking on the traditional events which seem analogous to those in the sacred volume.”

The Rev. W. Wyatt Gill, B.A., who spent some years in the Polynesian Islands of the Pacific, in his book Life in the Southern Isles, has pointed out that the elder missionaries who worked in those islands were impressed with the similarity to the Hebrew in the conjugation of the verbs and in many of the primitive words such as mate, death; mara, bitter; rapaau, to heal; pae, side; ina, behold, etc. Most verbs have a causative active and causative passive form, resembling the Hebrew conjugation Hiphal, and its passive Hophal. Another remarkable resemblance: “These islanders,” he says, “like the Hebrews of old, place the seat of the affections and intellect in the bowels.” A parent giving vent to an excess of tenderness to a child will say, “My bowels are all gone out towards you.” In writing to an absent son, the father will use the expressive phrase: “My bowels are pained through grieving for you.” So too of the intellect. A native will praise after this fashion: “Your bowels are full of light,” viz., “You have a clear intellect” or the reverse, “Your bowels are dark indeed.” Similar expressions are found in the Bible, Genesis 43:30 “And Joseph made haste; for his bowels did yearn upon his brother and he entered into his chamber and wept there.” 1 Kings 3:26: “Then spake the woman whose living child was unto the king, for her bowels yearned upon her son, etc.” PAGE 12 So also the New Testament: Colossians 3:12: “Put on therefore, as the elect of God, holy and beloved, bowels of mercies, kindness, humbleness, etc.” Philemon 7: “For we have great joy and consolation in thy love, because the bowels of the saints are refreshed by thee, brother.”

It does seem to indicate that the Hebrews and the Polynesians of the South Seas had a common origin.

It may be asked, how can we trace the track of the Maori people to New Zealand? Cowan entertains the reasonable argument, now largely accepted, that the ancestors of the Maori migrated eastward from the shores of the Persian Gulf to Persia, Baluchistan and thence to India. The stages of their migration would cover many generations. Each country in which they were located would leave its impress on their manners, customs and traditions. There can be no doubt that the ancestors of the Maori sojourned for a period in the Malayan Archipelago, now peopled by Malays and a Mongoloid race which came later when the Maori ancestors had located themselves in the Pacific Islands. There is, however, no trace of the Mongoloid strain in the Maori. There can be no doubt that the Maori expedition in its pilgrimage passed through Fiji, Samoa, Tonga and Easter Island, and also voyaged as far as the Sandwich Islands.

They were expert sailors and possessed considerable astronomical knowledge which was of value to them in their various migrations. No doubt this astronomical knowledge was due to their racial affinities with the ancient Chaldeans. “To the Phoenicians (The Hebrews were considered to be part of the Phoenicians according to ancient historians), who were great navigators, with whom they had blood relationships, they were indebted for their knowledge of navigation.” Origin of the Maori, p. 31.

Mr. Percy Smith in his book Hawaiki deals with the sojourn of the proto-Maoris in India where they were governed by a chief or king named Tu-te-Rangi-Marama. This, he holds, was about the year 450 B.C., prior to their migration to the East Indies.

In various ways India left its impress upon the ancestors of the Maori. In Western Polynesia the people resemble the Hindu in a greater degree than do the Maoris of New Zealand. The name “Maori” is known in Northern India, viz., Maori, Mori, Mauri and Maurea. Watkin, in his Journal, uses the name Mauri when writing of the native people of New Zealand. Mr. A. K. Newman, in his book Who are the Maoris? points out that many Maori names and words can be traced to India. The Maori legends of the origin of Maui are the same in India. Newman also points out that the protruding tongue in Maori art is characteristic of many Indian images of gods; that the Maori fortified pas, and their mode of fighting are Indian; that their canoes and canoe sails are Indian; that their tattooing is Indian. He is also of the opinion that some of the Maori customs and habits had their origin in India, and that the foods they cultivated—the kumara and the taro—were cultivated in India and planted with the same religious rites.

Cowan in The Maori: Yesterday and Today, calls attention to the theory (and indeed more than a theory) that those ancient intrepid navigators in their wanderings coasted down the eastern shores of the African Continent at least as far as the Zambesi, and that they visited and partly colonized Madagascar, which would account for the resemblances between the Maori-Polynesian language and Malagasy.

The Rev. J. F. H. Wohlers in his autobiography also calls attention to the similarities that obtain between the Maori and the Malagasy and gives examples: “Judging by this relation of language the Malagasy in Madagascar, the Maori in New Zealand, as well as the whole Polynesian population of the South Seas, must have had a common origin, and have emigrated from the same country, etc.”

There is the traditional story of Maui who fished up the North Island of New Zealand with a fish hook. It appears that there were five brothers of whom Maui was the youngest. To the latter was ascribed extraordinary or miraculous feats such as procuring fire from the underworld with which he performed wonders. As a result the brothers were afraid of him. It happened that the brothers had arranged a deep sea fishing tour, and they were keen to keep the secret to themselves and keep Maui out of the venture. Maui, however, upset their plans by stowing himself away on the canoe on the night previous to departure. He did not reveal himself till the canoes was far out to sea. They sailed into the distant southern waters. Maui then decided to fish on his own account and took his line but, alas! according to the myth he had no hook and no bait, but he had with him the jawbone of his grandmother—Murirangawhenua—which he used for a hook and for bait he punctured his nose and poured his own blood upon the hook. This hook and bait were symbolic of supernatural power. He uttered a karakia and when he pulled in his line he found that he had gripped something very heavy — a huge fish. This enormous fish, known as Te-Ika-a-Maui, was the North Island of New Zealand. Such is the myth, the fabulous story. It is given in detail by Dr. Shortland in his Traditions and Superstitions of the New Zealanders and also by Sir Peter Buck in The Coming of the Maori. When the mythical is eliminated from the story it does not preclude the possibility of Maui the Polynesian navigator.

Regarding the historic setting of the Polynesian migration to New Zealand, there are various and nebulous accounts, every tribe having its own version. Kupe, who hailed from Hawaiki, is regarded as one of the most noted of the Polynesian navigators. The approximate date of his visit is given as A.D. 925. Even Kupe may not have been the first to land in New Zealand. This is lost in the mists of antiquity. Kupe in his canoe Matahourua, after long weeks of dangerous voyaging, was rewarded by seeing a white cloud in the far distance, and a cry was raised, “A cloud! A cloud! Ao-tearoa.”

Kupe is supposed to have sailed along the coast of the North Island, entered the harbour where Wellington is situated today, and also entered Porirua Harbour. He is credited with isiting Queen Charlotte Sound and the Tory (Torah?) It was from Hokianga that Kupe returned to Hawaiki. Such is the story, in brief, as believed by the Maori people.

Some investigators claim that the Morioris of the Chatham Islands had no knowledge of New Zealand, and that their language, customs and material culture were widely different from the Maori; that their mythology reveals a close kinship to the fundamental Polynesian pattern, but that their historical traditions do not indicate that the Morioris had any knowledge of New Zealand. It is quite possible that odd fishing boats may have drifted to New Zealand and that their Moriori occupants became absorbed in the Maori people.

It is believed that the first canoe of Morioris landed at Kaingaroa. The canoe bore the name Tane and was in charge of Kahu. The second wave of colonists came in the canoes Rangihoua and Rangimata The third canoe was named Oropuke and was under the charge of the chief Moe, and made its landfall approximately in the year A.D. 1175.

The Rev. J. Aldred (Wesleyan) who lived in the Chathams in 1841–42 has stated than in addition to the Maoris in his charge, there were about 300 Morioris living on these islands. According to their own statements they had been a numerous people but were dying out. Mr. Aldred said of them: “They are a harmless, inoffensive people. They have no fixed dwelling place, clothing or house. They put up a sort of wind-break, behind which they eat and sleep. Their food is herbs and fish, and their sole attraction to any one place is firewood and water.” They had some notion of a upreme being whom they regarded with fear and dread, and they also believed in a future state. Their dead were not buried, but the trunk of a tree was scooped out, the body placed in the cavity, covered with a lid and then put in a reclining position on the ground in their cemetery. These burial grounds were supposed to be peculiarly sacred to the gods. On ordinary occasions the Morioris feared to enter them, and when Mr. Aldred did so an old man who accompanied him sat at the entrance amazed and wonderstruck. There their idols were erected, and when a burial took place they prayed to them. Mr. Aldred came to the conclusion that there was little affinity between them and the Maoris, basing his opinion on the dissimilarity of manners and customs. When Mr. Aldred spoke to the chief Mate Waipuku about the Gospel, the chief said: “O, why did you not come and teach us before the white man came and led us into evil ways.”

Mr. Aldred preached the first sermon ever delivered in the group at Waikeri from the text “God so loved the world …” The people recognised in the missionary the messenger of peace and goodwill. He wished to bring some of his own Maori teachers from Wellington to these islands, but the captain of the schooner declined on the plea that “they would spoil his trade.” Unfortunately large quantities of ardent spirits had been taken to the islanders by the traders, and some of the people became drunkards. Later, Maori teachers were admitted and recognised. The Rev. Wiremu Te Kote Te Ratou was appointed and resided there for several years, and accomplished much for the Maori people and dwindling Moriori population.

The Maori people today trace back their descent to the various canoes of the Great Migration. It is believed that this migration took place about the year A.D. 1350. How many canoes came to New Zealand between the arrival of Toi and the historic fleet it would be difficult to state. However, the Great Heke was the first organised migration on a large scale of the ancestors of the Maori people to New Zealand, and is referred to by Sir Peter Buck as the third settlement group. The causes of the migration were various. The increasing population led to bitter feuds and frequent hostilities. There were family jealousies with regard to prestige and quarrelling over food supplies. All this unrest led to the desire to find a new home beyond the seas. Sir Peter Buck gave the names of the canoes: Tainui, Te Arawa, Matatua, Kurahaupo, Tokomaru, Aotea and Takitimu. Another famous canoe was the Horouta, commanded by Pawa. There may have been others. These skilful sailors steered their course by the stars and the guidance, they believed, of Tangaroa, the God of the Ocean. The Kai-Tahu people of Otago and Southland claim descent from the Takitimu, and they also have a tradition of the Araiteuru canoe which was wrecked at Moeraki. The round boulders on the sea front there are said to be the petrified calabashes from the canoe. The Takitimu canoe was commanded by Tamatea, who was accompanied by his sons Ranginui and Kahungunu. The priests were Ruawharo, Te Rongopatahi and Tupai. The Takitimu made its first landfall on the east coast and landed some of its people at Poverty Bay and some at Hawke's Bay. At Whanganui-a-Tara (Wellington Harbour) Tamatea met Whatonga's son Tara. He then proceeded to the far south, to Murihiku (the end of the tail) as far as the Waiau River where the Takitimu struck a reef and her long voyage ended. The Takitimu mountain range is a memorial to that famous canoe.

Tamatea then built the Karaerae canoe and sailed to the North Island and settled at Hokianga. Tamatea's sons settled in Poverty Bay and Hawke's Bay.

There are traditions of canoes, other than those already mentioned, which landed in New Zealand before the “Historic Fleet” of A.D. 1350.

In The Coming of the Maori, p. 40, Sir Peter Buck states that certain of the “Whanganui tribes of the west coast have some odd laments which mention canoes associated with ancestors who lived in the period before the Fleet.” Among the canoes mentioned is the Tairea.

There is the tradition of the Uruao canoe which is regarded as having ante-dated the Great Fleet. The Hon. F. Waite, in his Pioneers in South Otago, mentions the approximate date as being A.D. 850. Mr. F. G. Hall Jones in Historical Sauthland gives the same date and mentions the name of the great chief Rakai-haitu.

The elders of the South Island Maoris have a tradition that Rakai-haitu or, more correctly, Te Raikaihautu with his canoe sailed from Hawaiki, called at the North Island, entered several harbours, and then proceeded to the South Island. He and his party are credited with exploring the cold lakes Hawea, Whakatipu, Te Anau and Manapouri. They sailed down the Waiau river, entered Foveaux Strait and then departed for Banks Peninsula.

The usual dress for men and women was the cloak (like the Israelite Tallit?), wrongly named a mat. The piupiu was a kind of kilt and was made of strips of dressed flax attached to or hanging from a belt. This garment hung down to the knees and was much in evidence in the early days. They wore sandals of woven flax for footwear. A change in the native dress began in the whaling days, and the cloak gave place to a pakeha blanket. Gradually the pakeha form of dress became general.

The word tapu means sacred, but generally speaking it means the “setting apart” (similar to Israelite law) of certain persons or objects. This law is defined by Mr. E. Tregear in his useful book The Maori Race, as “the setting apart of certain persons or things by reason of their having become possessed or infested by the presence of supernatural beings, particularly of the spirits of ancestors who were the guardian deities of the tribe.” Again he wrote: “This great standard law of the Maori was inexorable and implied penalty. Every unfortunate happening or event was traced to some violation of the tapu. The dead were tapu. Those who handled a dead body were tapued and could not touch food with their hands. A person who was sick unto death was not allowed to die in his whare lest it should be rendered tapu, but the dying were taken into a temporary shelter so that the dwelling might not be destroyed. The head of a chief was tapu or sacred. This law had one great benefit inasmuch as places and things under tapu were as safe as if under lock and key.” A plantation of potatoes, or any other property, was safe from the hands of the dishonest if it had been made tapu; the most daring trembled at the idea of touching it. Mr. T. E. Donne, in The Maori Past and Present, points out that by the law of tapu the sanctity of marriage (a law as strict as the ancient Israelite law) mantained, and its violation was sometimes the cause of war. The man or woman who was unfaithful was condemned to die; and if a wife discovered that her husband was faithless, in certain cases, she had the right to kill the other woman. “A betrothed girl defended by tapu was as sacred as a vestal virgin of Rome.” Unfortunately there was no seventh commandment for unmarried young people. But tapu, if helpful in some cases, was an inconvenient institution in others. As a great chief was a tapued person, if he carried anything on his back, or if anything touched his head, it was tapued-viz., made sacred for his use. If he went into a cooking house all the things contained in it were rendered useless; if he blew the fire with his breath, no food could be cooked in it. A tapued person could not touch food with his hands, but he must be fed by others.

The next quotation is from the Journal of Rev. James Watkin, which dates further back to the mission days of Otago. He writes under the date of June 5, 1840: “Their faith in the power of the priests is slavish (like the high esteem the Israelites had towards their priests), and all sickness is ascribed to supernatural power, or perhaps infernal agency, Taipo being the supposed author of disease, whatever it be. Taipo is a foreign word. Its nature and place and etymology I cannot trace, but it appears to mean the Devil and is of universal use.”

On another date he wrote: “The natives here think the slightest infraction of the tapu will be visited by death, but when I ask them why the New Zealand gods don't kill me who break the tapu … they say they cannot touch me-it is only the Maoris they can kill. Many New Zealanders die of nothing but the idea that taipo has seized them-they give up hope.”

When a person had been guilty of improper conduct the tohunga could recite incantations and cast a spell or curse upon the supposed guilty one and death would follow suddenly or in the course of a few days. Often people were taken ill and died at once, saying they had been “makutued.” Sometimes the tohungas were crafty and unscrupulous and they used this power with deadly results.

Under the law of Muru plunder was regarded as a duty. If a person committed some offence against the community, he was plundered. Even if he had not committed any offence (this resembles a little the law of slavery for debt or of an eye for an eye in old Israel) imself, but was regarded as connected with one who had, still he was plundered. If a whare caught fire his friends would come to his aid and save all they could from the fire—and keep it. To plunder to “clean the slate” was the law. The only hope accruing from it one had, was the prospect of having his chance when a friend was in similar conditions.

The word utu means payment, satisfaction or revenge as the case may be. It was the Maori method of adjusting acts for wrong doing on the old Jewish principle of an “eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth.” If a person were away from home and someone during his absence stole anything from his whare, it was the duty of the offended to plunder the offender. Many of the causes of Maori acts of murder and aggression against the pakeha were due to this law of utu. The pakeha had trespassed upon Maori burial grounds and sacred places, or was guilty of moral offences-all this called for utu, compensation and satisfaction. The two laws of tapu and utu explain the causes of many of the murders of European sailors in the early days. Maori customs and particularly the law of tapu had been violated, hence utu was demanded. This was one of the causes of the Murdering Beach affair in Otago in 1817, when the crew of the ship Sophia suffered so severely.

The ancient Maori people were religious in their beliefs, and possessed many mystical conceptions, fears and rituals handed down from their ancestors. The Maoris of Otakou, as in the North Island, were polytheists. The word Atua was applied to the several gods or spirits who were regarded as controlling particular events. Mr. Elsdon Best has mentioned the native gods as being divided into four classes as follows:

I  The Supreme Being. II  The departmental or tutelary beings. III  Tribal gods.

 IV Family gods; familiar spirits as the defunct forebears.

The term Atua denotes not only such beings as we term gods, but also anything believed to possess supernatural power.

The Rev. T. G. Hammond, in The Story of Aotea, states that the common everyday name for the Deity was Te Atua (The God), and in its etymology it is both interesting and comprehensive: “A” signifies the present, the future and progression; “A” conveys the idea of force, in forcing a way or driving from one; “A” is the root word of ako (teaching) and ariki (a lord or teacher); Tua signifies the past, or that behind, as “O tua whakarere,” that left behind. There is, therefore, without any unnatural strain upon the word Atua, conveyed the idea of a Being representing the past, the present and the future, and possessing knowledge and power.

Whilst the Maori of former days, as stated by T. E. Donne and E. Tregear, was a polytheist and belived in many gods, he also had the conception of a Supreme Being known as Io the parent and the permanent one. He believed that in the beginning great darkness prevailed in which resided the Great Power designated Io, the Creator and director of the Universe. This great Super-Power, Io was beyond the grasp of the human mind-the mainspring of all existence. Io wished for light and there was light (very similar to Genesis account); he then created the skies and the earth. Io (similar to Iehovah) corresponds with the Jewish Jehovah.

The Maori believed in a future life, but his belief was very vague, and yet there was the idea that the soul of man survived. His body might decay, or be consumed by fire, but the soul and spirit lived on and passed into Po (darkness).

The Maori believed that when a person died the spirit passed to Te Reinga, the most northerly point of New Zealand, near Cape Maria Van Diemen, known as the “spirit's leap.” The spirit slid down and entered the abode of the dead. In the journey toward Te Reinga all souls or spirits journeyed from the south to the north. When the spirit reached the Leaping Place, according to Mr. Edward Tregear, an authority in these matters, “it stayed a brief time weeping and lamenting that it had to go down into darkness and leave the world of daylight where dwell all friends and things beloved of man.”

“The Maoris were possessed,” writes Watkin, “by a constant fear of the Supernatural; life and immortality had not been brought to light by the Gospel. The Gospel had not been heard. They were sitting in the valley of the shadow of death … The natives appear to know no good or beneficent deity. Maue (Maui), the chief local god here is more feared than loved. May they soon know the Blessed God, who is good to all, and whose tender mercies are over all His works … Had an interesting conversation with Korako who is an aged man, one of the most aged in New Zealand; he unites (Leadership & priesthood were often united in ancient Israel too) in himself the offices of chief and priest. He has an extensive knowledge of the language, customs and superstitions of his countrymen. The New Zealanders have, from his account, an expectation of a future state, and a better one than the present, where they reside much in the same fashion as in this world, having more to eat and less to do, a Paradise!”

The following is from Watkin's manuscripts and shows the attitude of mind of a warrior towards death. “A great warrior among these people died. His name was Kahu (Hawk). His ruling passion was strong in death, for when in the article of death itself, he caused himself to be raised on his mat and supported in a sitting posture, gave his last advice and parting address on this wise: ‘You stay, you stay, I am going to the clouds. I am dying a mean death in my house and not an honourable death in a fight. You, when I am gone — away to the war! Kill plenty of your enemies as payment for my death.’ This old warrior died in his darkness. He had been a great fighter in his time. During the last war with Te Rauparaha he had performed some surprising feats of valour. It is said that in one battle he had killed ten men with his own hand. One hundred of the northerners fell at one time, many of whom were eaten. Ten of the most handsome heads completely tattooed were preserved and brought to Waikouaiti, where they were sold to American ships. The price for each being one keg of gunpowder or two muskets.”

The Maoris, like the ancient Britons, offered human sacrifices. The only deities the Maoris knew were capricious beings. Of such they lived in constant fear. Every misfortune was interpreted as the malevolent action of some god who needed to be conciliated, and who required to be restored to good humour. The Maori could conceive of no more costly sacrifice than that of human life. Thus the blood of men was required.

Strange to say, before the coming of the missionary a form of baptism (is not strange at all since if they came from the Israelites they should have performed ritual baths or mikvehs) was observed in some of the tribes. The Rev. Samuel Leigh, Wesley an missionary at Whangaroa in 1822, was much surprised at this. The ceremony was as follows: the tohunga took the child in his arms, asked for the name desired and dipped the infant three times in water and returned it to its parents. Sometimes sprinkling was the mode of baptism. The priest sprinkled the water on the child with a branch of a tree. He then addressed the atua in a karakia requesting that the child's heart may be as hard as a rock; that when he dances the haka his enemies may be seized with convulsions and fall into his hands. After the ceremony a feast is provided and a worthy present given to the tohunga.

Hei Tiki. The word hei means neck, thus neck tiki. It is made of greenstone (pounamu) and is a true jade. The tiki is meant to be hung from the neck of the person wearing it. This emblem was held in great veneration, and was supposed to represent the first man. The first male created by Tane was named Tiki. The origin of it and its mythical secret was known only to the old tohungas and is lost in the mists of ancient times. It was also used to represent a legendary person or an ancestor; it was sometimes laid down and wept over when old friends met after a long time of parting. This was done in memory of the departed one to whim it had belonged. It was not worshipped, but it was thought to bring the owner or wearer good fortune. Some of the Maoris who fought in the World War II took their tikis with them, and when they looked at them they thought of their warrior ancestors of the “long ago.”

                                                           The 5 Israelite Warriors of King David

The Tohunga was an important person in the life of a Maori community. The Ariki-tohunga (high priest) was still greater, and exercised almost unlimited power. He was the medium between the gods and the people. In Taranaki ( is interesting that the study of the Torah was considered to be as high education & the beginning of the name Tara is not very different from the name Torah), in particular, there were schools of the “higher learning” called Whare-kura which were built by priestly hands. These buildings were dedicated by the sacrifice of a dog or perhaps a man. The students of the Whare-kura were initiated into the higher mysteries of the Maori race. Those so trained became skilful in their profession. The aid of the tohunga was invoked in great crises in life — birth, sickness and death. Before the warriors started upon then: expeditions he prepared them, and then afterwards freed them from the tapu of blood. If a great tohunga happened to pass a food store and his shadow fell upon it, it became tapu and the food must be destroyed. Even the whare in which he lived was tapu. The rain from the roof was tapu, and if a person drank the water he would be under a curse and die. The ordinary tohunga may be termed a wizard or even a sorcerer. He practised the art of witchcraft. He was a seer, prophet, astrologer, naturalist, poet and historian.

Very often his priestly practices had a baneful effect upon the people. He was an expert hypnotist, physiognomist and ventriloquist. A successful tohunga lived on the fat of the land. Judge F. Maning in his Old New Zealand gives a graphic description of such. The tohunga was the authority regarding the sacred myths, songs, chants, lore and genealogy of the Maori people. They were committed to the memory and he could recite them at will, and thus he handed them down to succeeding generations.

They had their own altars (tuahu) or shrines before which they offered their incantations. The tuahu was a simple shrine, sometimes a heap of stones, and sometimes simple up-right slabs placed apart. Other shrine, some, sometimes a heap of stones, and sometimes simple up-right slabs placed apart. Other shrines took the form of a post erected on tapu ground. The elder Maoris had a tradition about a tuahu at Port Chalmers above the quarry over-looking the harbour. This was a tapu spot, for to trespass there in the old days meant death. It may have dated back to the Waitaha period. It is known today as Lean's Rock.

A very significant aspect of the ancient belief was the Kura. There was, as before stated, in Taranaki a school of the prophets, the Whare-kura, or house of the higher learning, in which instruction was imparted in historical traditions, religious ritual and the mysteries that were known to the elder Maoris only. This wonderful store of occult lore was passed on from one generation to another. The ancient belief in the Kura is significant. The word in the Maori dictionary is defined as “red and glowing.” There is also Whenuakura, volcanic or red soil. There is, however, a far deeper meaning. Whenever the term Kura occurs in the structure of a word, or in the name of a place, it implies a sacred origin. The Rev. T. G. Hammond has written: “It is one of the basic words in the fabric of Maori mythology, and could not be named or discussed except under sacred conditions.” The word has a mystical significance which the elders of the Maori people have been slow to express. The Rev. T. G. Hammond, for very many years superintendent of the Maori Wesleyan Mission, in his The Story of Aotea, has given much information upon the weighty meaning of the word. He consulted the best authorities among his Maori friends, and he put the question, “What is the Kura?” It came as a shock to them. They looked in amazement and consternation and no-one replied. Such knowledge was confined to the tohungas and elders of the people. They were surprised that he, a pakeha, had a gleam of their mystical secret, the Kura. At length an aged man said, “Yes, that is an important word, it signifies power, knowledge, mana.” Then another Maori elder tried to make clear the meaning of the word and referred to the action of Joshua mentioned in the Bible (Joshua 4:9), “And Joshua set up twelve stones in the midst of Jordan in the place where the feet of the priests which bore the Ark of the Covenant stood …” The Maoris recognised in the whole circumstance of the Children of Isreal crossing the Jordan and the setting up of the twelve stones as a memorial, a ceremony akin to their own ceremonies. Mr. Hammond also put this problem to Te Whiti, the “chief-prophet” of Parihaka. It was only a short time before Te Whiti died. Mr. Hammond said to him, “What is really the meaning of the Kura?” For a moment he was silent, and then suddenly he spoke like one inspired and said, “Yes, I will tell you the meaning of the Kura.” Then he quoted Genesis 32:38. “Thy name shall be no more called Jacob, but Israel: for as a prince thou has power with God and with men, and hast prevailed.” The idea in the mind of the old chief was that men like Jacob could so wrestle with God in prayer that he would impart such knowledge—the Kura—that it would give them power with God and with men. Such was their belief.

“To those who do not know the inner life of the Maori,” wrote Mr. Hammond, “this may seem too idealistic an interpretation, but to me that experience with Te Whiti is among those things which time does not efface, and it is perhaps impossible to many in this materialistic age.”

The above interpretation is interesting seeing that it applies to an area on the Otakou Peninsula, wrongly named Taiaroa Head, where the lighthouse and flagstaff are today. It was known to the Maoris of the past as Puke-kura.

The Kura of the old Maori elders of the tribe of the Otakou Peninsula surely had a deep mythical meaning which applied to that particular locality, but the secret of it has died with them. It was surely a sacred locality, set apart, associated with their beliefs, aspirations and heart-yearinings. The question arises—had the Maori elders a dim and hazy conception of a more enlightened day—of the Coming One? This was the true Kura, red or redness of the Heavens in the morning light.

This was the message of the pioneer missionaries. It was the dawn or dawning of the Day. The Day-spring, the Morning-Star had visited them. The apostles of the Cross had come. They came to bring the true light — to give them the Christian conception of God, not a God of terror or revenge, but a God of Love. The pointed to Christ, the Light of the World, the light that “shineth in darkness.” Hundreds of Maori people in Otago accepted that Light and availed themselves of the Christian heritage.

Story: Māori Prophetic Movements – Ngā Poropiti

Underlying all Māori prophetic movements was the search for the recovery of Māori authority – te mana motuhake. From Pai Mārire to Parihaka, movements were met with antagonism by land-hungry governments.

Prophecy was part of traditional Māori society. It was practised by tohunga and matakite (seers). As Christianity brought by missionaries took hold, prophets combined Māori and Christian traditions.



First prophetic movement

The first prophetic movement was begun by Papahurihia in Northland. He fell out with Anglican missionaries at Rangihoua in 1833. He had a vision of a heaven full of European goods and plenty to eat. Papahurihia held séances in which Te Nākahi (the serpent) spoke in a whistling sigh. He adopted the name of Atua Wera (fiery god). Like all the later prophets, Papahurihia wanted Māori to regain their authority. His successor, Hōne Tōia, led locals into a rebellion against European taxes. Tōia called their faith Whiowhio (the whistling sect).

Te Ua Haumēne

Te Ua adopted the surname Haumēne (wind man) in 1864. Two years earlier he had begun to have visions after a boat was wrecked near his home in south-west Taranaki. He turned from Wesleyan Christianity and established a new faith called Pai Mārire (good and peaceful).

Rituals focused on niu (news) poles hung with flags. The noises made by flags and ropes carried messages from God. Followers chanted words taken from English such as ‘Taihana!’ (attention). Te Ua sent messengers to other tribes to tell them that Māori righteousness would triumph over the military.

Europeans saw Te Ua’s followers as rebels, and called them Hauhau. This became the name used for all those who rebelled against settler rule.

The second Māori king, Tāwhiao, was baptised by Te Ua, and Pai Mārire became the religion of the Kīngitanga. Another Māori leader who adopted some of Te Ua’s teachings was the Taranaki leader Tītokowaru.

Te Kooti

Te Kooti Arikirangi was arrested near Gisborne in 1866 and shipped to the Chatham Islands without trial. He became ill and heard the voice of God telling him what to teach his people. He led 300 men, women and children prisoners to escape back to Whareongaonga near Gisborne. They stood on the beach with raised hands to thank God and this sign became the name of the church: Ringatū.

Te Kooti and his followers were pursued by soldiers through the Urewera. He took refuge with Tāwhiao and Rewi Maniapoto in the King Country. In 1883 he was pardoned by the government.

The rituals of the Ringatū Church revolve around the twelfths, commemorating dates on which important events unfolded.

Te Whiti and Tohu

Te Whiti-o-Rongomai and Tohu Kākahi established a community at Parihaka in Taranaki in 1866 with the blessing of Te Ua Haumēne. They reclaimed confiscated land by ploughing it. As their followers were imprisoned for this, more people came to take their places. In 1881 troops ransacked Parihaka and took many people prisoner. Te Whiti and Tohu were sent to the South Island. Parihaka continued as a centre of non-violent resistance to settler laws. Their followers wore the raukura (an albatross feather) as a symbol of peace.

Rua Kēnana

Rua Kēnana was the most famous prophet to claim to be Te Kooti’s successor, the Mihaia (Messiah). He established a community at Maungapōhatu in the Urewera. His followers believed in maungarongo (long-abiding peace). In 1916 Rua was arrested by police and two of his followers were shot.

Other prophets and movements

Other 19th century prophets and movements, Te Maihāroa, Ani Kaaro, Te Mahuki, Pāora Te Pōtangaroa and Pao Mīere, took names and teachings from the Bible in their search for tino rangatiratanga (autonomy).

Many prophetic movements saw Māori as Israelites, wandering without their land as Jews did in the Old Testament.

In the 20th century, Te Mātenga Tāmati, Mere Rikiriki, Tahupōtiki Rātana, Haimona Pātete, Wi Raepuku, Hōri Ēnoka, Hoori Keeti and Alexander Phillips all continued the prophetic traditions.

Hawaiian People Are Decendants of Israel

I believe that the hawaiian people are decendants of Israel. I also believe that it is time for You to return! That the kingdom you are looking for will be obtained when a conscious return is made. Why is that so hard? Your land was taken not because the west was stronger but because Elohim (GOD) divorced you after you fell into idolatry. So the only solution is to restore the promised land was made possible for the tribe of Menasseh (Hawaiians) to posses this land in the first place. I have dedicated my life to this cause, so lets talk about the solution, and look at it for what it is!

Hawaiians (and other Polynessians) are Israelites and their Kahunas are Cohens



The Hawaiian remnant are from the lost tribes of Israel. The ancient religion of Hawaiians is very Israelite; It was a system of Kehunna, temples, prophets, and even sacrifice. By the way the word "Kehunna" is a Hebrew word meaning "Priesthood". And is founded on a very pure form of the creation story of genesis. In fact in some respects it seems to be more complete.



In the beginning a trinity of GODS essence existed called Kane, Ku, and Lono. This was the creation source that brought light into chaos. They then created the heavens and all its hosts, three heavens in number. See 2 Corinthians 12:1-3, if you have a bible. In the hawaiian account of when man was created his body was created from red clay (The Hebrew name for the first man "Adam" means "Red"). Coincidence? NOT! It gets better. The Hawaiian like the Hebrew records the woman also being made from the rib of the man....(Genesis 2). The newly created pair created by (the triune GOD) Kane, Ku, and Lono then placed them into a beautiful paradise (Genisis 1:26)... and GOD said, let US form man in our own image... Now you know the rest of the story and it all lines up with the original Hebrew version.



All the way to the tribe of "Menasseh" of which the Hawaiians come. There are so many other comparisons between the hawaiian and the lost tribe of Israel that it would take me a full day to list them. Your ancestors were there at the parting of the red sea, and at Mt. Sinai with Moses, and they there entered into a blood covenant with The Most High GOD. They later broke it and fell under the curse as a result, and  that curse involved the loss of land, plagues, and being scattered. Not to mention losing your true identity. Now this was all a result of Idolatry (worship of wood and stone etc...) So you might say you are under that curse. Now what has to be done to lift the curse?
























A Land Called “Arzareth" (America)

The apocryphal book of II Esdras (13:39-46) records that many members of the ten tribes escaped from the Assyrians and migrated independently to a land called “Arzareth.” Secular evidence indicates that this was in the region of the Black Sea and the Caucasus Mountains.

Lets read and confirm what II Esdras 13 says: [45] For through that country there was a great way to go, namely, of a year and a half: and the same region is called Arsareth. [46] Then dwelt they there until the latter time; and now when they shall begin to come,

There is much debate regarding "where Arzareth is". My first question after reading this passage was this: Would it take a year and a half to migrate from Israel to a land now known as the Ukraine (ancient Scythia as it was known to the Greeks)? In my mind at first, it was a bit doubtful, even with a large multitude. Japan, Siberia, and/or the Americas (via Beringia) is still more compelling as a possible distance requiring a year and a half's journey, but as a semi-comparison, it took about 5 months for the Jews (Judah) to return from Babylon to the Land of Israel (Ezra 7:8-9). It does take time to migrate with large populations in harsh conditions, and the Ukraine is quite a distance to travel on foot with women, children, and livestock.

Even so, Native American men are largely made up of Haplogroup Q and there is strong evidence that Hg. R and Hg. Q (brother haplogroups) made up the male population of Scythian-Saka-related peoples. Hg. Q most certainly dwelt in Scythian-Saka territory prior to moving into the Americas. I myself am Hg. Q1*, but my ancestors came to America much latter via Europe, not Siberia.

Whether or not II Esdras is an accurate or partially accurate telling of where many Israelites migrated to, it isn't known with any real certainty. The book wasn't included in the canon of scripture, but that doesn't mean it is void of truth or some semblance of truth and/or a prophetic reality, especially when compared with other evidence. And also, is the English translation of II Esdras itself an accurate translation and representation of the original?

Regardless, what is most intriguing to me is how Esdras portrays this particular body of Israelites. They decided to leave the "multitude of heathen" ...or in other words: they left the wicked, pagan multitude... which actually could have been the wicked, pagan multitude of the rest of Israel (which is why they were scattered and deported in the first place). So... a body of Israelites may indeed have left the larger body of Israel. That wouldn't have been the first time. But continuing with the idea that a righteous group of Israelites left a multitude of heathen for a country never inhabited leads me personally to think of "the Americas". Yet, lets ask something else: is there any archaeological evidence in the Americas that a Hebrew speaking people desired and walked in some form of Mosaic "righteousness"? Well... YES!!! There is such evidence. If you've never read about the Paleo-Hebrew Los Lunas Inscription of the Ten Commandments found in New Mexico, please check it out here: Los Lunas Inscriptions.

And you should know that there is plenty of finno-ugric tribes in siberia, all closely related to mongols and american indians, because they all came from same place. Bible tells to us that Israel shall return from the northest parts of earth (Scandinavia, Siberia) others return by ships and therefore came back from west (mediterranean sea).

76% of Finnish males are of haplogroup N, 20% of Swedish males are of haplogroup N. N doesnt came from europe, and it doesnt came from china either, but know what; its Israelite. Check the tribe of Issachar (and its blessings) on which majority of Finnish belong to (swedish belong to Gad most), and note also that according to bible & apocrypha ten tribes of Israel are peaceloving people like (finno-ugric and related peoples are). We can state that the of all the European peoples the Finns are the only majoritarily ones fond of Israel without any regret or shame.

God has stated to many Finnish believers that Finland is His second after Judea (Israel). God Has also protected us much (from Swedes & Russians mainly), our old-mans say that it was God who is to be given the praise over victory in winter war against Russian invasion.

My lineage has always intrigued me. But now my curiosity overwhelms me! I have followed the teachings of Pastor Murray of Shepherds Chapel and he has taught that Anglo Saxons are Isaac’s Sons and that Caucasians are of the Ephraim Tribe ( he explains that it only makes sense because the United States is the most fruitful nation of all time) All of this leads me to believe that the end is near. We are being called back to unite as One Nation. Israel. To confront the AntiChrist. May God bless and prepare you my brethren!

Navajo Nation
The Navajo Nation (Navajo: Naabeehó Bináhásdzo) is a semi-autonomous Native American-governed territory covering 27,425 square miles (71,000 km2), occupying portions of northeastern Arizona, southeastern Utah, and northwestern New Mexico. It is the largest land area assigned primarily to a Native American jurisdiction within the United States.

The Nation has one of the largest and most involved North American tribal governments, with organic institutions that include a judicial system, and large law enforcement and social service agencies. Additionally, it is a major steward of public lands in the Southwest, and these lands encompass major natural sights such as Antelope Canyon, Shiprock and Monument Valley.



In an attempt to "civilize" Native Americans, the federal government divided selected tribal lands into small parcels known as allotments and promised U.S. citizenship to those deemed successful at farming the land according to the agricultural standards of the time. Unfarmed or "unsuccessfully" farmed parcels were subsequently declared "unclaimed" and auctioned off to Anglo-American settlers. The program continued until 1934. While the Navajo reservation proper was excluded from the act's provisions, the Eastern border became a patchwork of reservation and non-reservation land, known as a "checkerboard" area.



The land area of the Navajo Nation is 24,078.127 square miles (62,362.06 km2), making it by far the largest Indian reservation in the United States; it is nearly the same size as the state of West Virginia.

Map showing populated places on the Navajo Nation

Adjacent to or near the Navajo Reservation are the Southern Ute of Colorado, the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe of Colorado, Utah, and New Mexico, both to the north; the Jicarilla Apache to the east, and other tribes to the west and south. The Navajo Nation's territory surrounds the Hopi Indian Reservation. A conflict over shared lands emerged in the 1980s, when the Department of the Interior attempted to relocate Diné living in the Navajo/Hopi Joint Use Area. The litigious conflict, effectively ended as the "Bennett Freeze" in July, 2009 by President Barack Obama, was resolved or at least forestalled, by the award of a 75-year lease to Navajos who refused to leave the coal rich region.

Navajo. Seven riders on horseback and dog trek against background of canyon cliffs (1904).

The Navajo Nation is the only region within the state of Arizona that observes Daylight Saving Time (DST), primarily for economic reasons and consistency as parts of the Nation overlap into states that observe DST, Utah and New Mexico. The remainder of Arizona, including the Hopi Reservation, is the only area of the continental United States that does not change its clocks.

The Navajo Nation's extensive mineral resources are among the most valuable held by Native American nations within the United States. An important business within the reservation is the operation of handmade arts and crafts shops to sell the high-quality goods made by the people.

Israelite native Americans

The sacredness the Amerindians in North America attribute to the buffalo resembles the ancient idolatrous Israelites worshipping the golden calf. Moreover, these buffalo worshippers considered the White Buffalo to be their god.





Immediately after the discovery of Central and South America the legend of the Lost Tribes began to be referred to the aboriginal inhabitants. Garcia, in his "Origen de los Medianos" (1607, pp. 79-128), declares that the Tribes passed over the "Strait of Aninai," i.e., Bering Strait, and went by that way to Mexico and South America. He deduces their identity from the common cowardice and want of charity of the Israelites and Indians. Both of these peoples, according to him, bury their dead on the hills, give kisses on the cheek as a sign of peace, tear their clothes as a sign of mourning, and dance as a sign of triumph. Garcia claimed to have found many Hebrew terms in the American language.


According to Manasseh ben Israel, Antonio Montesinos deposed in 1644 before the bet din of Amsterdam that while traveling in Peru he had met with a number of the natives who recited the "Shema'" in Hebrew, and who informed him through an interpreter that they were Israelites descended from Reuben, and that the tribe of Joseph dwelt in the midst of the sea. He supported their statements by tracing Jewish customs among other inhabitants of Central and South America. The Indians of Yucatan and the Mexicans rent their garments in mourning and kept perpetual fires upon their altars, as did also the Peruvians. The Mexicans kept the jubilee, while the Indians of Peru and Guatemala observed the custom of levirate marriage. Manasseh ben Israel therefore concluded that the aboriginal inhabitants of America were the Lost Ten Tribes, and as he was of the opinion that the Messiah would come when the whole world was inhabited by the descendants of Israel, he directed his efforts to obtaining admission for the Jews to the British Islands, from which they were at that time excluded (see Manasseh ben Israel).

The Mexican theory was later taken up by Viscount Kingsborough, who devoted his life and fortune to proving the thesis that the Mexicans were descended from the Lost Ten Tribes, and published a magnificent and expensive work on the subject ("Antiquities of Mexico," 9 vols., 1837-45). Kingsborough's chief arguments are that Mexicans and Israelites believe in both devils and angels, as well as in miracles, and use the blood of the sacrifice in the same way, namely, by pouring it on the ground; also that the high priest of Peru is the only one allowed to enter the inner, most holy part of the temple, and that the Peruvians anointed the Ark, as did the Israelites. He also finds many similarities in the myths and legends. Thus certain Mexican heroes are said to have wrestled with Quetzalcohuatl, like Jacob with the angel ("Antiquities of Mexico," vol. vii.).


Manasseh b. Israel's views were taken up by T. Thorowgood in his "Jewes in America" (London, 1650), and he was followed by the "Apostle" Eliot in a publication ten years later; and their views, referring now to the North-American Indians instead of the Mexicans or Peruvians, were adopted by Cotton Mather, Roger Williams, and even William Penn. S. Sewall also gave expression, in 1697, to the same views in a special publication.

Charles Beatty, in his "Journal of a Two-Months' Tour" (London, 1678), declared that he had found among the Delaware Indians traces of Israelitish origin; and J. Adair, in his "History of the American Indians" (London, 1775), devotes a considerable amount of attention to the same view, which he accepts. Adair was followed by Jonathan Edwards. A special work was written by E. Boudinot ("A Star in the West," Trenton, N. J., 1816); and he was followed by Ethan Smith in 1825, and by Israel Worsley ("View of the American Indians, Showing Them to Be Descendants of the Lost Tribes of Israel," London, 1828). Mordecai M. Noah accepted the Israelitish origin of the Indians (1837) in a pamphlet republished in Marryat's "Diary in America" (vol. ii.). J. B. Finlay claimed to have found traces among the Wyandottes in 1840, and the view was even considered by George Catlin in his "Manners . . . of the North American Indians" (London, 1841). Discoveries of alleged Hebrew tablets, as at Pittsfield, Mass., 1815, and Newark, Ohio, about 1860, have given fresh vigor to the theory. Altogether, with the exception of the Anglo-Israelite craze, a larger amount of literature has been written on this identification than on any other.

It was doubtless owing to this belief in the identity of the Lost Ten Tribes with the American Indians that Joseph Smith was led to adopt a somewhat similar view in his celebrated translation "Book of Mormon." According to him, America was colonized by two sets of people—one being the Jaredites, who came over after the dispersion from the Tower of Babel; the other a group of sixteen, who came from Jerusalem about 600 B.C. Their chief families were destroyed about the fourth century B.C., and descendants of the remainder are the North-American Indians.
Erie people

The Erie (also Erieehronon, Eriechronon, Riquéronon, Erielhonan, Eriez, Nation du Chat) were a Native American people historically living on the south shore of Lake Erie. An Iroquoian group, they lived in what is now western New York, northwestern Pennsylvania, and northern Ohio. They were decimated by warfare with the neighboring Iroquois in the 17th century for helping the Hurons, an enemy of the Iroquois. The Erie were absorbed by other Iroquoian tribes, particularly the Seneca, and gradually lost their independent identity. The villages were burned as a lesson to those who dare oppose the Iroquois. The names Erie and Eriez are shortened forms of Erielhonan, meaning "long tail." Did they come originally from the Eri clan of the Israelite tribe of Gad? Did they have any relation with Erie, Ireland?

Yuchi/Yuchee Indians

Yuchi/Yuchee Indians were last seen in Kentucky. They were comprised of two colonies of Jews who left Palestine around 135 AD. Scientists have found waste products in a cave in Kentuky (ancient name Ken-take: it was a designated battlefield. Some say that the soil there is so rich because of all the blood spilled over the years).

The Israelite Identity of Hispanics and Amerindians

The Biblical Truth About The Arrival Of The Native Indians of the Western Hemisphere to the New World.

The truth about the arrival of the native people of North/South/Central America, the West Indies, Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, Cuba, and surrounding islands is not being taught in today's society. Many professors and schoolteachers make fallacious claims stating that the natives of the Western Hemisphere entered this land by crossing a "Bering Strait" into Alaska.

The truth about how the forefathers of the so-called Indians of the Western world came here is found in the Apocrypha of the King James Version of the Holy Bible, 1611 Edition. The Apocrypha are fourteen books that were removed in the 1800s by the Roman Canon society. They were included in the original King James Version Bible published in 1611. The historical records about the arrival of the native people of the western world are found in the book of 2 Esdras from the Apocrypha, chapter 13, verses 40:46:

2 ESDRAS 13:40 - Those are the ten tribes, which were carried away prisoners out of their own land in the time of Osea the king, whom Salmanasar the king of Assyria led away captive, and he carried them over the waters, and so came they into another land.

After the death of King Solomon, the Twelve Tribes of Israel split into two kingdoms: the Southern Kingdom of Judah, composed of the tribes of Judah, Benjamin and Levi; and the Northern Kingdom of Israel, composed of the other tribes. The ten tribes you are reading about in 2 Esdras 13:40 are the ten tribes of the Northern Kingdom of Israel. For breaking the laws of God, they were held captive under the Assyrian people.

2 ESDRAS 13:41 - But they took this counsel among themselves, that they would leave the multitude of the heathen, and go forth into a further country, where never mankind dwelt,

These ten Israelite tribes, after being held captive by the Assyrians, decided to leave the heathen (meaning non-Israelite or Gentile people) they were amongst, and as the scripture says, they went forth "into a further country where never mankind dwelt". This is talking about a land that previously man never lived in. At this point in history, North/South/Central America, the West Indies, Puerto Rico, Hispanola, Cuba, and surrounding islands had no inhabitants. This is where the ten Israelite tribes came to, and they became the native people of these lands.

2 ESDRAS 13:42 - That they might there keep their statutes, which they never kept in their own land.

The purpose of the ten Israelite tribes coming to the Americas and surrounding islands was to keep the laws, statutes, and commandments of God which they never kept in their own land.

2 ESDRAS 13:43 - And they entered into Euphrates by the narrow passages of the river.

2 ESDRAS 13:44 - For the most High then shewed signs for them, and held still the flood, till they were passed over.

The way the ten tribes came over here was by using information from King Solomon's naval fleets.

2 ESDRAS 13:45 - For through that country there was a great way to go, namely, of a year and a half: and the same region is called Arsareth.

The region that they reached, which is the Western Hemisphere, is referred to by the Bible as "Arsareth", which means "New Found Land".

2 ESDRAS 13:46 - Then dwelt they there until the latter time; and now when they shall begin to come,

It says "Then dwelt they there until the latter time", this lets you know that this is where these ten Israelite tribes would be found at in the last days, which is now.

So, in conclusion, these are the historical records which show that the ancestors of the native Indians of the western hemisphere are the ten tribes of the Northern Kingdom of Israel.

It was clearly shown according to the scriptures in the Apocrypha that the ten tribes of the northern kingdom of Israel are known today as the indigenous people of the Americas, of Native American Indian and Hispanic descent.

I will now go into the prophecies of Genesis 49th chapter and break down each one of the ten tribes of the Northern Kingdom of Israel.

"And Jacob called unto his sons, and said, Gather yourselves together, that I may tell you that which shall befall you in the last days." - Genesis 49:1

Jacob is speaking to his twelve sons, the forefathers of the Twelve Tribes of the Nation of Israel, and he is going to tell thim what is going to happen to them in the last days, which is now. So, if you want to know who the Twelve Tribes of Israel are in these times we live in now, then the prophecies of Genesis 49th chapter will tell you.

"Gather yourselves together, and hear, ye sons of Jacob, and hearken unto Israel your father." - Genesis 49:2

REUBEN (SEMINOLE INDIANS)

"Reuben, thou art my firstborn, my might, and the beginning of my strength, the excellency of dignity, and the excellency of power:" - Genesis 49:3

When it says "the excellency of dignity", that's talking about the elegant clothing that Seminole Indians wear, they're very elegantly dressed people.

"Unstable as water, thou shalt not excel, because thou wentest up to thy father's bed: then defiledst thou it. He went up to my couch." - Genesis 49:4

This is talking about how Reuben slept with his father Jacob's concubine Bilhah (Genesis 35:22). Because of Reuben sleeping with Bilhah, the birthright that he had was taken from him.

"Let Reuben live, and not die, and let not his men be few." - Deuteronomy 33:6

This prophecy is fulfilled with the Seminole Indians (Reubenites) in the fact that they were not wiped out by the so-called white man.

ISSACHAR (MEXICAN INDIANS)

"Issachar is a strong ass, couching down between two burdens." - Genesis 49:14

The Israelites of the tribe of Issachar are the indigenous Mexican people (Aztec Indians, Yaqui Indians, Tarahumara Indians, Toltec Indians).

When it says that "Issachar is a strong ass, couching down between two burdens", an ass is a donkey. A donkey is used to pull burdens - The Mexican people are known for using burros (donkeys) for this purpose.

"And he saw that rest was good, and the land that it was pleasant: and bowed his shoulder to bear, and became a servant unto tribute." - Genesis 49:15

When it says that "And he saw that rest was good", this is talking about how Issachar (Mexicans) have what's called siestas. A siesta is an afternoon rest. Then it goes onto say, "and bowed his shoulder to bear, and became a servant unto tribute". This is prophecy is fulfilled in the fact that everywhere you go in this society, you always see Issachar (Mexicans) at work.

GAD (NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS)

"Gad, a troop shall overcome him: but he shall overcome at the last." - Genesis 49:19

The Israelites of the tribe of Gad are the North American Indian tribes. When it says "Gad, a troop shall overcome him", a troop is a calvary. The calvary that Gad, who are the indigenous people of North America, were fighting against, were the calvaries of the United States Army. When it says "but he shall overcome at the last", that means that Gad (North American Indians) will get revenge for all the injustices that have been done against them (i.e. land being stolen from them, over 77 million Native American Indians murdered, being put on reservations, etc).

All praises are due to the Most High (God the Father) in the name of His Son Jesus Christ (God the Son) for all the wisdom, knowledge, and understanding that He is bringing out through his Holy Apostles & Chief High Priests in the Israelite Church of God and Jesus Christ.

ASHER (SOUTH AMERICAN INDIAN TRIBES - FROM COLOMBIA TO URUGUAY)

The Israelites of the tribe of Asher are the people of native Hispanic descent from Colombia to Uruguay (Brazillians, Colombians, Uruguayans, Peruvians, Ecuadorians, etc).

"Out of Asher his bread shall be fat, and he shall yield royal dainties." - Genesis 49:20

Where it says "Out of Asher his bread shall be fat", that's talking about how there is a lot of natural resources in South America, a rich abundance of natural resources in South America. One natural resource that there is an abundance of in South America is iron. The word "Brazil", which is one of the countries where Asher dwells at, comes from the ancient Hebrew word barazal which means "iron". It goes on to say, "and he shall yield royal dainties", which talks about Asher (South Americans) being dressed in royal and elegant attire, i.e. Carnival.

NAPHTALI (ARGENTINEAN, CHILEAN INDIANS & GAUCHOS)

"Naphtali is a hind let loose: he giveth goodly words." - Genesis 49:21

A hind is a female red deer. When it says that "he giveth goodly words", that means whatever Naphtali says he's going to do, he's going to do it.

Mystery of the Ten Lost Tribes Ecuador

Intensified attention to the subject took place in the 17th century in England. It was all due to the writings of Manasseh Ben Israel, an Amsterdam Rabbi, who convinced Oliver Cromwell to allow the Jews to Return to England after their banishment from that country four centuries previously. Manasseh was fully convinced of the authenticity of the Sambatyon legend. He wrote in his book that all think that the Ten Tribes dwelled beyond this Sabbatical river. He cites many authorities in support of his belief including the statement of Josephus that Titus himself had seen the river. Later on, after his meetings with a remarkable missionary, the Marrano Jew (Jew who was forced to convert to Christianity in Spain and Portugal), Antonio de Montezinus, he became fully convinced that the American Indians constituted some of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel. Manasseh heard a very remarkable thing from Montezinus that in 1642 when Montezinus was deep into the mountainous wilderness of Ecuador, he met with four Indians who greeted him with "Shema Israel" which is the traditional creed of Israelites beginning with "Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one!" (Deuteronomy 6:4). He claimed that he spoke with them in Hebrew and claimed they were from the Lost Tribe of Reuben and Levi. Through the conversation with Montezinus, Rabbi Manase Ben Israel was convinced that the American Indians were from several tribes of the Lost Tribes of Israel. He wrote on Dec. 23, 1649, in a letter to John Drury, the Puritan divine, "I think the Ten Tribes lived not only there in America, but also in other lands scatteredeverywhere, these never did come back to the second temple, and they keep to this day still the Jewish religion seeing that all the prophecies which speak of the bringing back into their native soil must be fulfilled."

Menorah Was Found in South America

As for the Indians in South America and the Lost Tribes of Israel, there was an interesting article in a newspaper published in Israel (Maariv, Dec 31, 1974) as follows: In 1587, a Jesuit Nicholas Delttsu was sent to South America by the king of Spain to convert the Indians. In Argentina, he found a tribe with Hebrew names, Abraham, David, Moshe, etc.. When he asked them if they were circumcised, they answered, "Yes, just as our ancestors." In the same area were found knives of stone used for circumcision. Sharpened stone knives are cited in the Bible as used for circumcision. Of equal interest is the recent find of a tribe in Argentina related to the Incas of Peru. On a stone tablet were found 3 commandments - "Do not steal." "Do not lie." and "Do not murder." Scholars concluded that these commandments come from the Ten Commandments of Moses but existed hundreds of years before the Spaniards arrived. And in 1974 in the same area, round stones were found with Hebrew Menorah (candlestick with 7 arms of ancient Israel) on the stone, and on the side is written in Aramaic, Pascha (Passover). Aramaic is an ancient language which ancient Israelites used and this itself means very old. A few meters away was found a long stone in the shape of a brick with an engraving of a boat (the emblem of Zevulun is ship) with the word Tzipora (the same name as the wife of Moses and one of names of Israelites. The name of the ship?) written on it. Does this mean that they came here on boat? Scholars believe it is 3000 years old.

The Mandan Indians have the name of Manasseh. Manda was one way to call Manasseh

The Israelites were first identified in some deportations as the Sak-Geloths (“Prisoners of Isaac”) who eventually lived hour hundred miles east of Nineveh and eight hundred miles northeast of Jerusalem. The Sak-Geloths would later be identified as the Saki (“children of Isaac”) that eventually became the European Goths and the British Anglo-Saxons. It was the tribe of Mandi (Israelites). Saki or Saks were also known as the Manda, who were named after one their Israelite chieftains.


The Umman-Manda is identified as the People [Umman] of Manasseh since the Iranian Peoples often switched a Semitic "s" sound for "d", the Manda equals Mansa or Manasseh. We have shown elsewhere that the term Umman Manda in Mesopotamian terminology first applied to Israelites from the Tribe of Manasseh who dwelt to the West of the Euphrates. Later the term was applied tot he Cimmerians and Scythians amongst whom we find members of the Lost Ten Tribes. John R. Salverda points out that Manda actually meant Saturn. This however may not necessarily contradict the name also meaning Manasseh. It may even explain why the Israelites were equated with Manda-Saturn.  The first Israelites the Mesopotamians and Iranians came across were probably from the Tribe of Manasseh. Suppose the name Manasseh as they pronounced it sounded the same as the name for Saturn and every nation having to be identified with some star or other. It follows logically that Manasseh (and by extension all other Israelites) would be identified with Saturn!

The Mandan Indians are considered to be Israelites by Two-Housers & Mormons. There's a Palestinian village whose inhabitants are "Arabs" of Jewish origin which is called Kfar Manda. It's interesting that the Mormons believe The Book of Mormon was written in Gold Plates & were buried in a kind of treasure chest made of stone, exactly the same as one found in Persia, current Iran.


The Mandan are a Native American people living in North Dakota. They are enrolled in the Three Affiliated Tribes of the Fort Berthold Reservation, North Dakota. About half of the Mandan still reside in the area of the reservation; the rest reside around the United States and in Canada.

The Mandan historically lived along the banks of the Missouri River and two of its tributaries—the Heart and Knife Rivers—in present-day North and South Dakota. Speakers of Mandan, a Siouan language, developed a settled, agrarian culture. They established permanent villages featuring large, round, earth lodges, some 40 feet (12 m) in diameter, surrounding a central plaza. While the bison was key to the daily life of the Mandan, they also farmed and actively traded goods with other Great Plains tribes.

There is another Indian tribe near Washington whose hero is Manas. They claim that they come from another continent.


Philanthropists that believed the American Indians were Israelites

Bartholome de Las Casas - early 16th century

In the early 16th century, Bartholeme de Las Casas became the champion of the Native American Indians, devoting his lifetime to improving the conditions—in the West Indies, Peru and Guatemala. Las Casas wrote:

"These Indians can bring near the redemption. If we treat them humanely in this world and convert them to Christianity, we are preparing for the redemption of the Western world in the messianic era. Their conversion is apt indeed, as I am convinced the Indians originate in Ancient Israel. Indeed, I can bring proofs from the Bible that they are of the Lost Tribes."

Antonio Montezinos - 16th century

The association of the Indians with the Lost Tribes was heard again and again. The report by Portuguese traveler Antonio Montezinos some 120 years later aroused remarkable interest.

"It was a thrilling journey I took in South America. Now that I am back in Amsterdam, I must share with you some incredible news. There is a Jewish Indian tribe living beyond the mountain passes of the Andes. Indeed, I myself heard them recite the She'ma (the expression of the Jewish faith) and saw them observe the Jewish rituals."

Menasseh ben Israel - 1655

Menasseh ben Israel, a Dutch Jewish scholar widely respected in both Christian and Jewish circles, played a central role in strengthening the association of the American Indians with the Lost Tribes. Deeply influenced by Montezinos' report and stimulated by his own mystical disposition, Ben Israel gradually fashioned his most important and best-selling book: The Hope of Israel.

Ben Israel's approach was shrewd indeed. He reiterated the belief that the dispersion of Jews to all corners of the Earth was the beginning of the redemption. The first stage had been realized—Israelite tribes had been discovered in the Americas!

These words echoed the hopes for a better world, awakened in the second half of the 18th Century during the American and French revolutions.

Many abolitionists, for example, claimed that the Messianic Age would be ushered in when the slaves were freed and when the native Americans, descendants of the Ten Lost Tribes, were converted to Christianity.

CHEROKEES and JEWS

Early Colonial Accounts Show Cherokee Hebrews

As truly amazing as it may sound to us Modern Americans, the original British Colonists who wrote about the Early Cherokee or Old Cherokee (of the Mediavel Cherokee Era of the 1600s) report that they were some kind of Hebrews or Jewish Sect!

"The Trail of Tears"

These include the reports of Payne, Butrick, and Adair. And Bartram (1701) presented the Cherokee as unique among the other Native Americans as they were NOT idolatrous, but seem to have some kind of God-fearing religion, and belief in a ONE TRUE GOD!

Now, while modern historians tend to laugh at these claims, the records of this Era, seem to be rather convincing--at face value. And thus the Early or Mediavel Cherokee had some kind of Jewish, if not Messianic (Jewish-Christian) Religion. So, let us take a brief look at some of the facts in the historical record and consider: 1- the Mediavel Cherokee Temple, 2- the their Religious Calendar and Holy Dayss, 3- the Jewish "Indian" myths and legends that they taught, and lastly, 4- their amazing Cherokee Combat Routine. And, thus, we should get a reasonable picture of just what the Old Cherokee Religion was like.

The National Heptagon: The Jewish Design of the Main Cherokee Temple

One of the most Sacred things to most Jews, is the importance of the Temple in Jerusalem. Apparently, the Mediavel Cherokee also had a similar attitude.

The Cherokee Hebrews built a 7-sided Temple for the place of their main worship. It faced East, as did the Temple in Jerusalem. Inside, was a Sacred Fire, that was kept buring all year, and was re-lit on an Indian Festival Day like Yom Kipper--as was the Menorah of the Temple in Jerusalem. Moreover, they had a variety of Temple purification rituals and activities, that seem to resemble those used in the Temple in Jerusalem.


And there is NO WAY that this is just "coincidental". Somewhere in the Cherokee Origins, the Old Cherokee must have had Jewish contact!

Hebrew Festivals:

Cherokee Corn Feasts Parallel Jewish Holy Days!

Also, one of the more convincing evidences is that the Jews followed a Religious Calendar of 7 main Festivals. And so did the Mediavel Cherokee! Even more so, examination of these Celebrations show that they were basically about the same thing--except that the Cherokee followed the growing cycle of corn, rather than that of barley and wheat, as the Jews did.

And for a brief summary, these Mediavel Cherokee Festivals were:

1- FIRST FULL MOON OF SPRING,
which would have been literally the Day of Passover, and was accompanied by the slaughter of a lot of animals to prepare the meat for that Feast Day, and was set by the sprouting of the new grass of Spring (like the Passover Barley)! [Not to mention the intensive Spring Cleaning of the Feast!]

2- GREEN CORN FESTIVAL,
which was when the corn first balled, so that it could be cooked and eaten--similar to First Fruits, when the Barley was first edible. (However, for the Cherokee, this occured later in the year, more towards Summer, as the Climate in America was not as warm as in the Middle East).

3- MATURE or RIPE CORN FESTIVAL,
which was set for 50 days after the Green Corn Festival (like Pentecost)--and when the Sacred Fire in the Heptagon (like the Jewish Temple Menorah) was re-lit for the next year!

4- GREAT NEW MOON FEAST,
which was set as the first Full Moon of Autumn, and when Cherokee myth said that the whole world was created (and similar to Rosh HaShannah)!

5- PROPITIATION and CEMENTATION CEREMONY,
for cleansing one's soul of Sin, and joining in UNITY with the Community as they ALL joined with the Creator--setting their relationship to HIM in cement (and similar to the Day of Atonement, with its earlier Kol Nidre purifications and making ammends.) Moreover, as this ended the Torah Study Cycle, many Jewish boys were often bar mitzvahed here, with an appropriate ceremony for Cherokee lads, also.

6- FESTIVAL OF EXALTING or BONDING BUSH CEREMONY (week long),
or a very loose approximating of the 8 Day Feast of Tabernacles--and in the Fall.

7- Various other minor Festivals.
Now, the mathematical odds on these connections happening just by "accident" are ATRONOMICAL! Therefore, the Old Cherokee, back in Cherokee History somehow, had to have Jewish contact! And since they were observant of Jewish Festivals, they have to be Jews of some sort! (Though, perhaps, not "Orthodox"! For they ate pork and were not circumcised. Maybe, Saducean Jews, then?)

Cherokee Creation:

Jewish "Indians" Myths and Legends!

Medieval Cherokee myths very closely paralleled the Old Testament Bible Stories. They had Aquahami (as Abraham) and Wasi or Washie (as Moses)--or sometimes Hasi. Though, other Native American myths and legends seem to have also gotten incorporated, here and there, too, along with the standard Biblical line.

But, most dramatic of all, is the story of the First Man and First Woman. For the ONE CREATOR made the world in 7 Days, similar to the Biblical account! And, the First Cherokee Man was Kayanty (the hunter) and the First Woman was Sheluva or Shelu (Sele is "corn"). Moreover, the First Corn Woman was bitten by the evil snake, and thus brought death to all the Redmen! (And there are MORE parallel tales!).

However, the Mediavel Cherokee also belived in the Trinity, and that while God was ONE, according to their legends, HE could, at times, be in 3 parts: the Father or Creator being UHaloTayQua, the Son or Uniter being ATaNeVTy, and the Great Spirit or Holy Ghost being USQauHuLau. Moreover, they used the emblem of the Cross as the focus of the main dance for the Bonding Bush Festival. Consequently, if the Mediavel Cherokee believed in the Trinity and used the Cross, then they must have been Christians of some sort, too. Thus, our Messianic label of them.

Cherokee Combat:

Jewish Ark Leads Battle Formation!

OKAY, the most convincing fact of the Jewishness of the Old Cherokee is seen in the confirmed tale that when they went into combat, they took a sacred ark (like the Jews) into battle with them. However, it was smaller than the historical Jewish ark, and as a large basket was carried by one warrior, who was also a Cherokee Priest. Now, no one but Jews are going to be carrying a sacred ark into combat!

And the odds that they just developed this "coincidently" are out of this world--especially when you consider with other correlations of indicators which say they were Jews.

Our Conclusions:

Cherokee History shows that WE were Jews!

No matter how you slice and dice the historical facts (unless you just ignore them--or write them off as lunacy), you have to come to the rational conclusion, based on all the evidence (and we have only presented a brief over-view of all that there is), that the Mediavel Cherokee of the 1600s were Jewish! And even more so, because of their Christian beliefs, here and there (like the Trinity), they also had to be some kind of Messianic (Jewish-Christian)! Or, Cherokee Messianics! For this was, apparently, the Old Cherokee Religion.

THE CHEROKEE NATION/ ANCIENT HEBREW TRIBE.

It has been discovered through DNA that Cherokee Indians have Jewish DNA. Wow! But, not only the DNA has been proven, but the Cherokee customs, holidays, feasts, and even dress, seem to mimic Jewish customs.

I have found numerous evidence of how Ancient Israel sent explorers to the Ancient America, mined all the copper here for the Temple of God, and even settled with some of the ancient people to form the American Native Indian Tribes of America.

The one I want to focus on here, is the Cherokee Nation. Because The Cherokee have the most resemblance and closest ties to the ancient Israelites.

Here are some of the similarities that will astonish you:

Their dress: they also wore similar dress, including the fringes on their garments.

They had the same manner of worship and customs, that are identical to Hebrew.
The Cherokees have their own "DAY OF ATONEMENT: which is identical to Israel's.

The Northern Cherokee Nation of Old Louisiana Territory has recently shocked the world by claiming that their ancient oral legends tell of a Cherokee migration made to America from the area in Israel known as MASADA!

This startling evidence is being offered to the public by Beverly Baker Northup whom is the spokesperson for their organization.

The story has been kept alive among our Cherokee people that the SICARII who escaped Masada, are some of our ancestors who managed to cross the water to this land, and later became known as Cherokees.

(Please note the phonetic resemblance of SI'CARI'I and Cherokee or TSA'RA-GI').

In addition to other startling claims, there is also the belief by the Northern Cherokee that A ROCK THAT WAS UNCOVERED IN TENNESSEE IN 1889 THAT IS NAMED THE BAT CREEK STONE PROVES A TRANSATLANTIC DIRECT CONNECTION TO JEWS.

Northup believes the ancient writings on the rock indicate that the stone is evidence of a 1st century Atlantic crossing to America by these escaped Jews that later became known as the NORTHERN CHEROKEE INDIAN NATION.

Some other similarities:

In marriage customs among many Indian tribes is very similar to the point of striking.

A widow could not marry without the permission of her brother-in-law.

This custom only existed among the American Indians and the Israelites!

Like the Jews, the Indians had their own "DAY OF ATONEMENT"  in which insults were forgiven and all disputes buried.

Their TOTEM corresponded in significance with the Israelites ARK OF THE COVENANT.
This chest was carried on poles and could never touch the ground.

In wartime the Israelites carried the ark.

The Cherokee and other tribes, did the same with their totem.

Among the Israelites, the new moon was linked to the Sabbath, and the Festival of the New Moon was a Biblical feast. Among them too, ceremonies of the New Moon were of highest importance.

I may add here that these similarities were also found in the Yuchi tribe that migrated to the Oklahoma territory and show the same evidence.

Both tribes were unique among the other tribes as being racially and linguistically different and separated from their neighboring tribes.

Every year on the 15th day of the sacred month of harvest, in the fall, they make a pilgrimage. For 8 days they live in "booths" with roofs open to the sky, covered w/branches, leaves, and foliage.

During this festival they call upon the Name of God. This is called the FESTIVAL OF BOOTHS.
This goes back to Moses and the exodus from ancient Egypt. (Lev. 23)

HOW DID 2 TOTALLY SEPARATE GROUPS CELEBRATE THE SAME EXACT CUSTOMS?

Dr. Cyrus Gordon of Brandeis Unv. in Boston, was priviledged to sit in on one of the fall harvest feasts and listened to their chants,songs, and sacred ceremonies. Being an expert in Hebrew, Minoan, and most Mid. East. languages, he was incredulous! As he listened, he exclaimed to his companion, "THEY ARE SPEAKING THE HEBREW NAMES OF GOD!"

Trying not to make this too long, let me briefly mention many ancient Jewish graves have been found in America. At the BAT CREEK STONE IN TENNESSEE, org. thot to be just Cherokee (for their language is so similar/identical); it was later identified as paleo-Hebrew and recognized by Hebrew scholars of Hebrew text of that period.

Dr. Robert Steiglitz of New York reads it as "A COMET FOR THE HEBREWS," w/reference to HALLEY'S COMET, WHICH HUNG OVER JERUSALEM "LIKE A FLAMING SWORD" IN THE YEAR A.D. 69 DURING THE FIRST REVOLT."

THE EVIDENCE SHOWS THAT KENTUCKY AND TENNESSEE BECAME HAVENS OF REFUGE FOR PERSECUTED HEBREWS OF ISRAEL!

Yuchi/Yuchee Indians

Yuchi/Yuchee Indians last seen in Kentucky. They were comprised of two colonies of Jews who left Palestine around 135 AD.

Scientists have found waste products in a cave in Kentuky (ancient name Ken-take: it was a designated battlefield. Some say that the soil there is so rich because of all the blood spilled over the years).


The Yuechi from China were to the Goths, which were Lost Israelites. According to many theories the Amerindian's ancestors went to the Americas through the Strait of Bering. Is it possible that the Israelite Yuechi took this root & gave their name to their descendants, at least to part of them? Obviously then the name Yuchi would come from Yuechi.

The Biblical Truth About the Arrival of the Native Indians of the Western Hemisphere to the New World

The truth about the arrival of the native people of North/South/Central America, the West Indies, Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, Cuba, and surrounding islands is not being taught in today's society. Many professors and schoolteachers make fallacious claims stating that the natives of the Western Hemisphere entered this land by crossing a "Bering Strait" into Alaska. When researched, the people who actually crossed this "Bering Strait" are the ancestors of the people known today as Eskimos, descended from Noah's son Japheth, forefather of the Inuits, Filipinos, Hawaiians, Samoans, Indonesians, Polynesians, Tongans, Fijians, and all people of Pacific Islander descent.

The truth about how the forefathers of the so-called Indians of the Western world came here is found in the Apocrypha of the King James Version of the Holy Bible, 1611 Edition. The Apocrypha are fourteen books that were removed in the 1800s by the Roman Canon society. They were included in the original King James Version Bible published in 1611. The historical records about the arrival of the native people of the western world are found in the book of 2 Esdras from the Apocrypha, chapter 13, verses 40:46:

2 ESDRAS 13:40 - Those are the ten tribes, which were carried away prisoners out of their own land in the time of Osea the king, whom Salmanasar the king of Assyria led away captive, and he carried them over the waters, and so came they into another land.

After the death of King Solomon, the Twelve Tribes of Israel split into two kingdoms: the Southern Kingdom of Judah, composed of the tribes of Judah, Benjamin and Levi; and the Northern Kingdom of Israel, composed of the other tribes. The ten tribes you are reading about in 2 Esdras 13:40 are the ten tribes of the Northern Kingdom of Israel. For breaking the laws of God, they were held captive under the Assyrian people.

2 ESDRAS 13:41 - But they took this counsel among themselves, that they would leave the multitude of the heathen, and go forth into a further country, where never mankind dwelt,

These ten Israelite tribes, after being held captive by the Assyrians, decided to leave the heathen (meaning non-Israelite or Gentile people) they were amongst, and as the scripture says, they went forth "into a further country where never mankind dwelt". This is talking about a land that previously man never lived in. At this point in history, North/South/Central America, the West Indies, Puerto Rico, Hispanola, Cuba, and surrounding islands had no inhabitants. This is where the ten Israelite tribes came to, and they became the native people of these lands.

2 ESDRAS 13:42 - That they might there keep their statutes, which they never kept in their own land.

The purpose of the ten Israelite tribes coming to the Americas and surrounding islands was to keep the laws, statutes, and commandments of God which they never kept in their own land.

2 ESDRAS 13:43 - And they entered into Euphrates by the narrow passages of the river.

2 ESDRAS 13:44 - For the most High then shewed signs for them, and held still the flood, till they were passed over.

The way the ten tribes came over here was by using information from King Solomon's naval fleets.

2 ESDRAS 13:45 - For through that country there was a great way to go, namely, of a year and a half: and the same region is called Arsareth.

The region that they reached, which is the Western Hemisphere, is referred to by the Bible as "Arsareth", which means "New Found Land".

2 ESDRAS 13:46 - Then dwelt they there until the latter time; and now when they shall begin to come,

It says "Then dwelt they there until the latter time", this lets you know that this is where these ten Israelite tribes would be found at in the last days, which is now.

So, in conclusion, these are the historical records which show that the ancestors of the native Indians of the western hemisphere are the ten tribes of the northern Kingdom of Israel.

It was clearly shown according to the scriptures in the Apocrypha that the ten tribes of the northern kingdom of Israel are known today as the indigenous people of the Americas, of Native American Indian and Hispanic descent.

I will now go into the prophecies of Genesis 49th chapter and break down each one of the ten tribes of the Northern Kingdom of Israel.

"And Jacob called unto his sons, and said, Gather yourselves together, that I may tell you that which shall befall you in the last days." - Genesis 49:1

Jacob, a black man, is speaking to his twelve sons, the forefathers of the Twelve Tribes of the Nation of Israel, and he is going to tell thim what is going to happen to them in the last days, which is now. So, if you want to know who the Twelve Tribes of Israel are in these times we live in now, then the prophecies of Genesis 49th chapter will tell you.

"Gather yourselves together, and hear, ye sons of Jacob, and hearken unto Israel your father." - Genesis 49:2

REUBEN (SEMINOLE INDIANS)

"Reuben, thou art my firstborn, my might, and the beginning of my strength, the excellency of dignity, and the excellency of power:" - Genesis 49:3

When it says "the excellency of dignity", that's talking about the elegant clothing that Seminole Indians wear, they're very elegantly dressed people.

"Unstable as water, thou shalt not excel, because thou wentest up to thy father's bed: then defiledst thou it. He went up to my couch." - Genesis 49:4

This is talking about how Reuben slept with his father Jacob's concubine Bilhah (Genesis 35:22). Because of Reuben sleeping with Bilhah, the birthright that he had was taken from him.

"Let Reuben live, and not die, and let not his men be few." - Deuteronomy 33:6

This prophecy is fulfilled with the Seminole Indians (Reubenites) in the fact that they were not wiped out by the so-called white man.

ISSACHAR (MEXICAN INDIANS)

"Issachar is a strong ass, couching down between two burdens." - Genesis 49:14

The Israelites of the tribe of Issachar are the indigenous Mexican people (Aztec Indians, Yaqui Indians, Tarahumara Indians, Toltec Indians).

When it says that "Issachar is a strong ass, couching down between two burdens", an ass is a donkey. A donkey is used to pull burdens - The Mexican people are known for using burros (donkeys) for this purpose:

"And he saw that rest was good, and the land that it was pleasant: and bowed his shoulder to bear, and became a servant unto tribute." - Genesis 49:15

When it says that "And he saw that rest was good", this is talking about how Issachar (Mexicans) have what's called siestas. A siesta is an afternoon rest. Then it goes onto say, "and bowed his shoulder to bear, and became a servant unto tribute". This is prophecy is fulfilled in the fact that everywhere you go in this society, you always see Issachar (Mexicans) at work.

GAD (NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS)

"Gad, a troop shall overcome him: but he shall overcome at the last." - Genesis 49:19

The Israelites of the tribe of Gad are the North American Indian tribes. When it says "Gad, a troop shall overcome him", a troop is a calvary. The calvary that Gad, who are the indigenous people of North America, were fighting against, were the calvaries of the United States Army. When it says "but he shall overcome at the last", that means that Gad (North American Indians) will get revenge for all the injustices that have been done against them (i.e. land being stolen from them, over 77 million Native American Indians murdered, being put on reservations, etc).

All praises are due to the Most High (God the Father) in the name of His Son Jesus Christ (God the Son) for all the wisdom, knowledge, and understanding that He is bringing out through his Holy Apostles & Chief High Priests in the Israelite Church of God and Jesus Christ.

ASHER (SOUTH AMERICAN INDIAN TRIBES - FROM COLOMBIA TO URUGUAY)

The Israelites of the tribe of Asher are the people of native Hispanic descent from Colombia to Uruguay (Brazillians, Colombians, Uruguayans, Peruvians, Ecuadorians, etc).

"Out of Asher his bread shall be fat, and he shall yield royal dainties." - Genesis 49:20

Where it says "Out of Asher his bread shall be fat", that's talking about how there is a lot of natural resources in South America, a rich abundance of natural resources in South America. One natural resource that there is an abundance of in South America is iron. The word "Brazil", which is one of the countries where Asher dwells at, comes from the ancient Hebrew word barazal which means "iron". It goes on to say, "and he shall yield royal dainties", which talks about Asher (South Americans) being dressed in royal and elegant attire, i.e. Carnival.

NAPHTALI (ARGENTINEAN & CHILEAN INDIANS, GAUCHOS)

"Naphtali is a hind let loose: he giveth goodly words." - Genesis 49:21

A hind is a female red deer. When it says that "he giveth goodly words", that means whatever Naphtali says he's going to do, he's going to do it.

Native Americans turning on Israel?

In 2008, the Sovereign Nation of the Coushatta Indiana Tribe of Louisiana was the first Native American tribe to establish a formal relationship with Israel, hosting an affirmation of friendship event with Israeli consular officials and issuing a proclamation that May 14 would be “Stakayoop Yanihta Yisrael” or “the day to honor Israel.”

The following year the tribe took a delegation to Israel which resulted in their first Israel-related venture, becoming the exclusive distributor of Aya Natural, an Israeli start-up skincare company based in the Druse community of Beit Jann in the Galilee. David Sickey, the head of the tribe, has made a number of visits here since as well to promote additional cooperative business activity.

In late 2009 Virginia Native American leader Chief Annie Richardson met with Minister of Infrastructure Uzi Landau and told him the American Indians support the State of Israel and its right to the land of Israel. In presenting Landau with a traditional Indian headdress at that time she said, “We believe that God has given you this land and we want you to fight for it.”

More recently, Navajo Nation President Ben Shelly and his wife Martha visited Israel to learn about issues from agriculture to tourism. On his arrival here on December 8 he said, “We set out on this mission to look at how Israel has advanced in growth in some of the same areas we face in the Navajo Nation.” The trip, funded by Navajo faith-based organizations with non-governmental ties, was designed to draw inspiration from Israeli methods in agri-tech, tourism, capital infrastructure and offering government services to rural areas, according to Shelly’s adviser, Deswood Tome.

But the criticism of Shelly’s visit and one by Indian literary diva Joy Harjo (who was scheduled to speak at Tel Aviv University) was anything but supporting of Israel. In truth there has been an upsurge of anti-Israel sentiment by a very small but very vocal contingent in “Indian country” within the past two weeks, most notably in opposition to both visits.

The response has included very negative, vitriolic letters to The Navajo Times against President Shelly’s visit and a similarly negative and vitriolic op-ed piece in Indian Country Today opposing Joy Harjo’s visit, sponsored by supporters of the BDS (boycott, divest, sanction) movement.

Janene Yazzie, CEO of Sixth World Solutions in Lupton, Arizona, writes in the Navajo Times: “It should not shock or surprise us that our Navajo Nation President Ben Shelly has taken an unexpected trip to visit Israel, a government that has committed itself to carrying out genocidal practices against its population of indigenous Palestinian peoples. To hear that our president believes the apartheid government of Israel has more to offer than the Diné people in his homeland fighting against his policies is hurtful and unbelievably ignorant. I stand in solidarity with the people of Palestine and those indigenous nations and non-indigenous peoples fighting against continued corporate, religious, and political exploitation.”

Or how about this piece by Dina Gilio- Whitaker in the largest circulation weekly, Indian Country Today: “This week Muscogee Creek scholar and literary diva Joy Harjo ignited a firestorm of controversy when she announced on Facebook that she was leaving for a trip to Israel where she was scheduled to perform on Monday, December 10 At Tel Aviv University.

The controversy came when friends and fans challenged her decision to go in light of the US Academic and Cultural Boycott of Israel (USACBI) and the Palestine Campaign for the Academic and Cultural Boycott of Israel (PACBI), as part of a larger boycott, divestment and sanctions (BDS) movement.

“Critics contend that her actions are equivalent to crossing a picket line and are tantamount to tacit support of the Israeli apartheid state. It is hard to know what Harjo is thinking and where her loyalties lie in the Palestinian/Israeli conflict. It is also hard to know how President Shelley would justify his alliance with Israel in light of its ongoing genocide and theft of Palestinian lands.

“The problem with someone as high profile as Joy Harjo collaborating with an institution like Tel Aviv University (which is built on top of an ethnically cleansed Palestinian village) is that it sends a message that she as a Native American represents all Native Americans in support of apartheid Israel’s domination of Palestinians. I, for one, don’t want to be associated with that.”

Dr. Harjo received so much vile commentary on her Facebook page that she considered shutting it down. However, she did take the opposition into account, writing both an eloquent response to her critics and taking an overnight visit to Ramallah. As a result, she now opposes the security fence.

Oftentimes when the subject turns to “the whole world is against us” people tell me that the core problem of maintaining such a perspective is that it often becomes an excuse for eschewing self-evaluation and introspection.

Yet when it comes to self-evaluation and introspection, there is probably no nation on earth that engages in these two activities more than Israel as these traits are ingrained in us with our mother’s milk. After all, most of us grew up being constantly evaluated by our parents, encouraged to achieve more, to do better, to be a mensch and to remember who we are and where we came from.

Internalizing those traits has made us question everything we do, both individually and communally, and is probably one of the major reasons this society is as dynamic as it is, in spite of the continuous threats to our survival. So while there is, of course, always a risk that thinking that the whole world is against us will cause us to act a bit irrationally, given the facts as we know them, who could blame us?

As far as American Indians are concerned, that nation certainly knows the risks of yielding land for peace. It has itself been discriminated against and confined to “reservations” to the eternal shame of both the United States and Canada, and, as such, they should be the last ones to accuse Israel of being an apartheid state. But then again, why let facts get in the way of emotions? To insure against that one also has to think.

The Lost Tribes of Israel in the Americas

According to the Bible, the Assyrian conquest of over 2700 years ago caused 10 of the original 12 tribes of ancient Israel to have been exiled and in the eyes of history, to have become "lost". The places to where they ultimately journeyed are open questions and represent the theme of this web site. Significant evidence will be presented on this page to show that centuries before Columbus, a portion of the tribes migrated to and populated regions now known as Mexico, Peru, Guatemala, the Dominican Republic, Cuba, Brazil, Nicaragua, the United States, Canada, and their neighboring areas. This site recognizes that there are many other areas of the world that have been ably proposed as likely destinations of the lost tribes. Indeed, certain nations in Africa, Asia, and Europe are among them. It should be noted that Lost Tribes Info stands not to refute these propositions but rather to complement them. After all, the Lord said in Isaiah 27:6, "In the days to come, Jacob will put out shoots, Israel will bud and blossom and fill the whole world with fruit."

Although information from more than one source appears, the contents of most of this site is composed entirely of excerpts from a multi-volume 19th century work by British scholar Lord Kingsborough, Antiquities of Mexico, (the volume and page of which are noted after each excerpt). The author spent years researching the records of Europe's first visitors to the New World, as his compilation of the logs is deep and thorough. It should be noted that the many comparisons of native people's customs, etc. to Jewish people's customs, etc., were made within the framework of Kingsborough's own perspective and from that of the highly authoritative sources whom he has quoted. Therefore the multiple similarities he and his sources have observed, may not have been exclusively to the customs, etc. of the one tribe of Israel [Judah] with which they would have been familiar. Rather the analogies they described may have unknowingly been to the collective tribes since there presumably would have been a discernable closeness in their traits. It would follow then, that the word "Israelite" could justifiably be substituted for the word "Jewish" in the writings. Either way, however, whether the human characteristics depicted are attributed to the tribe of Judah (Jewish) or to the entire 12 tribes (Israelite), the likeness to inhabitants of the New World is unmistakable.

 Readers of Lost Tribes Info should know this web site is intended, in part, to be an incomplete surface view of the subject. The hope is to inspire others to delve deeper and examine more closely.

Israelites in the New World

* The celebrated Las Casas entertained no doubt that the continent of America had in early ages been colonized by the Jews; and he goes so far as to say that the language of the Island of Saint Domingo was "corrupt Hebrew."

* ... the curious fact of the comparitively rude and uncivilized tribes of the Orinoco being acquainted with the history of the formation of Eve from the rib of Adam while he slept, who also, according to the Abbe Gilii, agreed with the Mexicans in believing that light was created before the sun, which likewise was a Hebrew doctrine. VIII 172, 173

* (the knowledge of the creation of light before the creation of the sun) was so opposed to the philosophical opinions of the heathen world, that the interpretter of the Codex Vaticanus does not scruple to affirm ... that the Mexicans had either derived the knowledge of it from the devil, or were a people descended from the Jews. VIII 173

* Sahagun's History of New Spain will convince the most skeptical that the Mexicans borrowed largely from the natural philosophy of the Jews, to whose moral code they were so much indebted...

* The Peruvians when first discovered by the Spaniards had already attained a high degree of civilization; and it would appear from a passage of Gomara's History of the Indies, that the Spaniards were struck by the resemblance of some of the tribes of Indians in that part of America to Jews. VI 271

* If the Mexicans were descended from the Jews, or acquainted with the books of the Old Testament it is the second proposition by which that interpretter (interpretter of the Vatican Codex) attempts to prove the first,-there would have been nothing surprising in their borrowing images from passages in the Psalms and other books of the Bible descriptive of the Deity or of his attributes .... VIII 31

* ... implies an acquaintance on the part of the Mexicans with the Book of Genesis; a fact already noticed by the interpreter of the Codex Vaticanus, who thence concluded that the Mexicans were descended from the Jews .... VIII 55

* The interpreter of the Codex Vaticanus is of the opinion that the ceremonies of the Mexicans, as well as their sacrifices, may be urged as proof of their being descended from the Jews. VI 235

* The assertion of Adair that all Indians, particularly the Muskohge, have a sanctum sanctorum, or most holy place, in the manner of the ancient Jews, is fully corroborated ...in an inedited letter of M. de Buisson, descriptive of a temple of the Natchez, who were a powerful Indian tribe dwelling on the banks of the Mississippi .... VIII 381 Supplement

* If the Mexicans were descended from the Jews, and conscious of their origin, and that they were God's people,- a fact which, like the ancient Jews, they frequently took occasion to remind Him of ...... nothing would have been more probable than that, when suffering hardships, and in extreme difficulty, they should have expected the quick coming of the Messiah; and to that expectation might be referred ..... "Come quickly, since we expect you," which both the interpreter of the Codex Telleriano-Remensis and the interpreter of the Codex Vaticanus affirm that the Mexicans were accustomed to utter from the terraces of the houses on the festival of Hueymiccaylhuitl ... VIII 66

* ... the various marvels which Gomara, Torquemada, Acosta, and Herrera testify that the Mexicans believed to have occurred in the course of their pilgrimage from Aztlan,-such as heaven raining bread; water flowing at the command of their god from a dry rock; a small brook suddenly overflowing its banks, and causing the enemy to flee before them; the punishment of those

who murmured against the will of Huitzlopochtli, and wished to remain in Tulan instead of proceeding onwards to the promised land; the frequent consultations the priests held with their god, and the answers which they received .... VI 244

* Oviedo says, that the Indians of Nicaragua refrained from all work on the days dedicated to religious festivals, and the same custom existed among the Peruvians ...

... that it was very probable that the sabbath of the seventh day was known in some parts of America .... VIII 135

* Garcia, in his celebrated treatise on the origin of the Indians, adduces as a partial argument in favor of the Mexicans being descended from the Jews, the similarity which many of their laws bore to those of the Pentateuch. This argument is so conclusive that it is unnecessary to insist upon its force .... VIII 115

* ... it may be inferred that altars of single stones were very common amonst the Jews, as they were also amongst the Mexicans .... VI 492

* The Peruvian tradition of men having been created by Viracocha, after the likeness of images made by himself .... VI 403

* Many customs of the Mexicans, strongly savouring at Judaism, besides that of circumcision, having already been noticed : such as their wearing fringes fastened to their garments, practising frequent ablutions; attending constantly public places of worship, to which they were summoned by the blowing of horns, as the Jews are to the synagogues; anointing themselves with oils; addressing each other with the appellation of Brother and Sister; their priests allowing their hair to grow long like Nazarites, though some were tonsured; their frequently doing penance, strewing dust on their heads, and blackening themselves with ashes as a sign of mortification, and eating earth (Isaiah 49:23) at the festival of Tetzcatlipoca. VI 388, 389

* Sahagun says in mentioning in the fourteenth chapter of his first book the festival of Xochilhuitl ... that the Mexicans ate on one of their feasts unleavened bread. VI 307

* The words of Las Casas, "Loquela tua manifestun te facit," "Your speech betrays you," in reference to the Mexicans, or some other tribe of Indians, whom he took to be real Jews ..." VI 332

* Original Indian traditions record that the province of Guatemala was in early ages colonized by the Jews, who assumed the names Tultecas, and established a powerful monarchy in that district of America .... VIII 9

* It was customary among the Jews to summon the people to the synagogue by the sounding of horns; and to blow trumpets was a religious ceremony, which Moses declares, in the twenty-third chapter of Leviticus ... It is certainly not a little curious that, according to Torquemada, the Mexicans should have been summoned to prayers at stated hours by the blowing of horns, in the same way as the Jews ... VI 293

* The Mexicans believed that Tezcatlipoca was a spirit, and that when he appeared to mortals they only saw and conversed with his snake. The Jews reconciled in the same manner the passage in the Old Testament "No man hath seen God," with many other passages in Scripture in which persons are declared to have seen him. VIII 87,88

* ... the Peruvians, like the Jews, considered the Divine name ineffable .... VIII 140

* Polo de Ondergando states this curious fact in ... his inedited treatise concerning the manners of the Peruvians; wherein he observes, that blasphemy, sacrilege, adultery, and homicide, were four crimes which the Peruvian laws punished with the greatest severity.

* ... Sahagun's History of New Spain does certainly contain many metaphors and figures of speech evidently derived from the Scriptures, and which unequivocally prove the existence, in former ages at least, of the Hebrew language in America. VIII 163

* ... a very curious agreement in the name which the Jews and the Mexicans applied to the poles of the earth. The Mexicans, as we are informed by Sahagun, in the third and eighth chapters of his ninth book of History of New Spain, named the north and south poles the left and right hand of earth, and the leatned Capellus, in his dissertation on the ground plan and architecture of the Temple of Jerusalem, which Bishop Walton has prefixed to the first volume of his polyglot Bible, affirms that the Jews gave the same name to the poles. VIII 256 Supplement

* And Malvenda says, that the natives of St. Michael had tombstones, which the Spaniards digged up, with several ancient Hebrew characters upon them, as, "Why is God gone away?" and "He is dead, God, knows." VIII 373 Supplement

* (Chronicle of the Order of Saint Augustine in Peru) ... Two other stones containing inscriptions in Hebrew and Greek letters, are stated by Colancha, on the authority of Brother Raymond Urtado to have existed in the neighborhood. VIII 25

* The strongest argument, however, ... is the confession of Montezuma and his nobles, one and all to Cortes - that their ancestors had come from the same part of the globe as the Spaniards, situated towards the rising sun. VI 53

                                                               Cortés & Malinche

* The interpreter of the paintings contained in the larger Vatican M.S. ... instancing this and other traits of resemblance between the Mexicans and Jews ... adds, "From all these circumstances the fact is plain and probable, that this nation descended from the Jews ...

Swine

* (Adair reported ) "When the English traders have been making sausages mixt with hog's blood, I observed the Indians to cast their eyes upon them with the horror of their reputed forefathers, when they viewed the predicted abomination of desolation fulfilled by Antiochus in defiling the Temple ..." VIII 157

* Adair also remarks ... that the Indians entertained the same degree of abhorrence for the flesh of swine as the Jews; and this double analogy in the arbitrary association of ideas of pollution with blood and eating the flesh of swine, increases in much more than a twofold ratio the probability that the Indians derived their notions of uncleanliness from the Jews, and were deeply imbued with all the prejudices of the Old Law .... VIII 157

* Having noticed their division of animals into clean and unclean,- under which latter denomination they included hogs, wolves, panthers, foxes, cats, mice, rats, moles, and even the beaver, only excepting the bear from prohibition which Moses laid in the eleventh chapter of Leviticus on eating any of the species of animals here enumerated ... VIII 157

* ... since Gumilla declares ... that the Indians of the Orinoco were circumcised, and held the flesh of swine in extreme abhorrence ... VIII 159

* The extreme aversion which the North American Indians felt for swine, and the opprobrious term of Shukapa, or swine eaters, which they bestowed on Europeans because they perceived that ate the flesh of that animal, have already been noticed by Adair in the twelfth Argument of his treatise on the descent of the American Indians from the Jews. Whether, however, the fact of no mention being made by any Spanish authors of the flesh of the pecari, or Mexican hog, being eaten by the Mexicans, or that animal being domesticated among them or sacrificed in their temples, or even offered as provision to the Spanish soldiers, before whom they placed all other kinds of food when on the marches through their country, can be a considered a negative proof of the Mexicans entertaining the same aversion for swine as the more northern Indian tribes, we shall leave it to others to determine. VI 236

* Du Tetre, an old French author, who published a General History of the Islands of St Christopher, Guadeloupe and Martinique, in the year 1654, remarks in the third section of the first chapter of the fifth part of that work, that the Indians, either of all or some of these islands, abstained from eating the flesh of swine, and also many kinds of fish when it is recollected that the group of islands of which the three above mentioned formed a portion were originally inhabited by the Caribs ... and that they were peopled from the adjacent continent, and by the tribes dwelling in the vicinity of Orinoco, this fact will not appear so extraordinary; ... VIII 159

* ... the Mexicans in their dress, in the domestic economy of their house (which had flat roofs or terraces like those of the Jews), in their mode of receiving guests and saluting strangers, in their respect for the old (rising up on their approach), and in the pains which they bestowed on the education of their children ... strongly remind us of the Jews VI 276

* It is evident, from the passage of Exodus (29:6) ... that the holy crown was distinct from the mitre: it consisted of a plate of gold, that was tied with a blue lace over the mitre ... it says, in the thirty-sixth and following verses of the same chapter: "And thou shalt make a plate of pure gold, and grave upon it, like the engravings of a signet, Holiness to the Lord. And thou shalt put it on blue lace, that it may be upon the mitre; upon the forefront of the mitre it shall be. And it shall be upon Aaron's forehead ..."

Three things deserved to be noticed in the Mexican mitre. It frequently consisted of a plate of gold on a blue ground; it was tied to the head by a lace or ribbon; it was peculiarly worn on the forehead of the king or the priest. VI 296

Clothing

* They (Peruvians) seem likewise to have imitated the Jews in their sacerdotal costume. VI 293

* Balboa, in the eighteenth chapter of his inedited History of Peru, to which he has given the title of "Miscellanea Antartica," mentions along with the tassel, a sceptre, a mantle, and sandals as composing the regalia of the Ingas ... VI 519

* It would appear from what Garcia asserts, ... that the dress of the Peruvians was more like that of the Jews than was the Mexicans, whilst the sandals of the people of New Spain were strictly in the Hebrew fashion. [We know, from the expression of John the Baptist, "There cometh one mightier than I after me, the latchet of whose shoes I am not worthy to stoop down and unloose," the nature of the Hebrew sandals, which probably exactly resembled those worn by the Mexicans.] VI 295

In Peru ... some of the Ingas wore a crown more nearly resembling an episcopal mitre ...

Garcia says, in the last section of the second chapter of the third book of his, Origin of the Indians, "If the dress which the Indians wear is duly considered, particularly the Peruvian, it will be found very like that worn by the Jews; for they use a tunic or shift, which resembles a surplice without sleeves, and over it they wrap a mantle. They substitute sandals in the place of shoes ... VI 295

* Garcia ... "That this was the dress and costume of the Hebrews is evident (above excerpt)... and this kind of dress and sandals was worn by the Apostles." VI 295

* Garcia, in the second chapter of the third book of the, Origin of the Indians ... "Fr. Agustin Davila, Arcobispo de Santo Domingo, refiere en su Historia Dominica del Nuevo Mundo, como un pueblo llamado Tamaculpa, que es en la Misteca, se halloran unas vestiuras Sagrados de el que ellos tenian por summo sacerdote, muy semejantes a la que se ponian los pontificos maximos de la lei de Moises ..."

"Brother Augustin Davila, the archbishop of Santo Domingo, relates in his Dominican History of the New World, that some sacerdotal vestments were discovered in a town called Tamaculapa, in Misteca, which had belonged to the person whom they considered their high priest, which nearly resembled those worn by the high priests of the Mosaic law ... VI 293

* It is certainly surprising to see how nearly the Jewish costume is imitated in some of the Mexican paintings. VI 296

* it is, however, an undoubted fact, that the laws of the kingdom of Menchoacan, and the dress of the people of that state ... bore a strong resemblance to those of the Jews, whom they likewise resembled in making use of an ark in war. VIII 166

* The same custom prevailed amongst the Mexicans; on whose persons, as represented in their ancient paintings, we recognize all the ornaments mentioned in the Old Testament as worn by the Jews ... VI 229

* From the sixth verse of the eighth chapter of the Song of Solomon, "Set me a seal upon thine heart, as a seal upon thine arm," it appears that the Jews wore their seals fastened to their arms. And it is very singular since there was something peculiar in the Hebrew fashion, that this should have been a Mexican custom likewise; as we learn from Cortes, Torquemada, and Bernard Diaz, that it was. VI 229

* ... it would appear that the mantle, worn from a sense of decency by the Mexican priests round their loins, very much resembled the breeches which Moses made for Aaron and his sons. VI 298

* The dress and costumes of the Mexicans, and their sandals, resemble the apparel and sandals worn in the early ages in the East, especially by the Jews: and the serpent with which the Mexican priests ornamented their heads and persons, was perhaps a fashion introduced from Egypt into the New World ... VI 181

* ... where Joshua is described as being clothed in filthy garments, undoubtedly because the Jews, like the Mexicans, were accustomed to wear such garments as a sign of contrition for sin; and the Mosaic law required that the Jewish high priest should in his official character mourn for the sins of the people. VIII 237

* Both the Mexicans and the Peruvians were accustomed to take off their sandals whenever they trod upon holy ground or entered the places of their kings. This agreement is an arbitrary custom between two Indian nations so remote from each other would seem to argue a common acquaintance on their part with the history of God's appearing to Moses in the burning bush, and commanding him to take off his shoes because the place on which he stood was holy ... VIII 217

* ... twenty-second chapter of Deuteronomy ... "Thou shall make thee fringes upon the quarters of thy vesture wherewith thy cover thyself."

... from the indubitable testimony of their own paintings that was precisely the part of their dress to which the Mexicans fastened fringes. VI 77

Circumcision

* With respect to circimcision, Peter Martyr and Gomara, whose veracity as historians has never been doubted both affirm that the Indians were circumcised. VI 334

* ... it deserves to be remarked, that the rite of circumcision seems to have prevailed thousands of leagues along the coast of the Atlantic, amongst nations very remote from each other, and who spoke very different languages. Peter Martyr notices ... the rite of the natives of Yucatan. Oviedo says ... it was practised in Nicaragua; and Gumilla states it was common among the Indians of the Orinoco, observing that the ceremony was performed on the eigth day after the birth of the child ... from the fourth chapter of Dr. Boudinot's Star in the West, that this rite was practised amongst the North American Indians. VIII 121

* Captain Cook in the narrative of his Voyage to the Pacific Ocean ... the men of Tongataboo were all circumcised, ... the rite of 'taboo matee' or 'purifying from uncleanliness' contracted by the touch of a dead body, which was strictly enjoined by Moses to the Jews in the nineteenth chapter of the Book of numbers ... VI 520, 521

* ... and it is singular enough that the phrase 'taboo matee' should so nearly resemble the Hebrew expression ... VI 521

* Captain Cook also discovered that circumcision had extended itself to the Islands of the South Sea. How, to use the words of Gumilla, are these moral phaenomena to be explained ? VI 392

* The Mexican custom of circumcising their children within a few days after their birth was known to the Spanish authors (Ureta's Historic de la Etopia, sixth chapter, second book; printed at Valencia 1610). VIII 184

* It is certainly very extraordinary to find from the "Oronco Illustrated" of Gumilla, and Coreat's Voyages to the West Indies, that Indian nations so remote from each other as those of the Oronco and the tribes who lived on the confines of Peru on the banks the La Plata, as well, as the Chalchaques, a people situated between Peru Tucuman, all used circumcision, and strictly abstained from the flesh of the swine. VI 392

* The practise of concision, for example, together with the rite of circumcision, was discovered by Palacio among the Indians of Honduras ... VIII 228

* ... that the practice of that rite (circumcision) was common in Nicaragua; since had it been confined simply to a few individuals, ... it could scarcely have come to the knowledge of the Spaniards, much less have been a subject of grave inquiry among them. VIII 24 Supplement

* (Mackenzie's) Journal of a Voyage through the North-west Portion of the Continent of America ... "Whether circumcision be practised among them I cannot pretend to say, but the appearance of it was general among those whom I saw." VIII 121

* It would be an extremely difficult thing to determine how appearance, in the present case, could have differed from reality; and we shall only observe, that the idea of the Jews having colonized America appears never to have crossed the imagination of Mackenzie (see previous excerpt), he could have no motive for noticing this curious fact ... VIII 121

* It will be remarked that Gumilla says the Salivas circumcised their children on the eigth day after their birth; and by the covenant which God made with Abraham, the Jews circumcised their children on the same day ... VI 272

* Gumilla asserts ... that the Salivas and other Indian tribes of the Orinoco were circumcised, and held the flesh of swine in extreme abhorrence; from which he infers that those tribes were descended from the Jews. It may be interesting to know that so learned a writer as the Abate Gilii, whose work, dedicated to Pope Pius VI, received express approbation of the Spanish monarch Charles III, although differs in opinion from Gumilla respecting the Hebrew origin of those tribes, still bears honourable testimony to the merits of that historian, and corroborates the truth of his relation in some of its most important particulars ... VIII 37

* From the accounts of travelers it would seem almost doubtful whether circumcision was not a custom of the Hottentots, who according to Anquetil, were forbidden by their traditions porkfish without scales, hares and rabbits; ... and it is very deserving of notice, that Edwards says nearly the same thing, in the second chapter of his History of the West Indies, of the Caribs ... VIII 121, 122

* ... For we read in Captain Cook's Voyages of the rite of tabooing, or consecrating and putting apart, or making unclean for a definite period of time, both animate and inanimate things; and also that the natives of some of those islands, which are probably peopled from America, practised circumcision. VI 256

Aztecs

* The Tultecas were most probably Jews who had colonized America in very early ages, bringing along with them the knowledge of of various mechanical arts, and instructing the Indians in them; but especially propagating amongst them their own religious doctrines, rites, ceremonies, and superstitions, which seem to have pervaded the New World from one end of that vast continent to the other; and to have extended to some of the islands in the Pacific Ocean ... VI 255,256

* Azcatlxochitl a Tultec princess ... seems to be a snycope for Aztecatlxochitl, a name which would signify The Rose Of the Aztecs ... it would afford grounds for supposing that the Tultecas were also called Aztecas, and that they proceeded from Aztlan ... VI 256

* The reason for supposing that the domination of the Tultecas had rather merged in that of the Chichimecas ... is the estimation in which they were held long after their empire had passed away; and the pride which the chichimecan sovereigns felt in being descended from them ... VI 256

* ... how to account for an extreme similarity which their history, their laws, their rites, ceremonies, and superstitions present to those of the Jews,- would be found in the fact that the Tultecas were Jews who had colonized America ... from whom likewise many of the Indian tribes might with much probability have a borrowed a portion of their early history, especially the account of their pretended migration. VI 256

* ... or in the term Huehhetlapallan, or the old red country, having been applied to it in opposition or contradistinction to the new red country, a name which the Jews would have been likely to have given to the monarchy which they established in the New World, from the striking peculiarity of the red complexion of the Indians, distinguishing them in the manner from all other inhabitants of the globe. VIII 196

* The fact of the Mexicans being themselves quite ignorant of the real situation of a country which their national traditions identified with the Holy Land, even much more than the various names strictly applicable to the Holy Land which they bestowed upon it, affords strong presumptive evidence that the country of Aztlan was the land of Canaan, and the city of Tula Jerusalem. VIII 196

The Deluge

* But the Mexican tradition of the Deluge is that which bears the most unequivocal marks of having been derived from a Hebrew source. This tradition records that a few persons escaped in the ahuehuete, or ark of fir, when the earth was swallowed up by a Deluge, the chief of whom was named Patecatle or Cipaquetona; and that he invented the art of making wine; that Xelua, one of his descendants, or at least one of those who had escaped with him on the ark, was present at the building of a high tower, which the succeeding generation constructed with a view of escaping from the deluge should it occur again; that Tonacatecutli, incensed at the presumption, destroyed the tower with lightning, confounded their language, and dispersed them; and that Xelua led a colony to the New World. VI 401

* This age, which was the first of the Mexican ages, and named by them Atonatiuh, or the age of water, closely bordered upon that of the Tzocuillicxeque, or age of giants; and it will be recollected that the age of the Flood in Scripture was that of the giants also. VI 401,402

* The fact of the Mexicans recording, both in paintings and songs, the deluge, the building of the Tower of Babel, the confusion of tongues, and the dispersion of tribes, being generally admitted by the early Spanish writers on America, it is almost unnecessary to refer to the authority of any particular writer to prove what no one will deny. VI 402

* From this account it will be perceived, that as not only in New Spain and in Peru, but likewise in Nicaragua, the tradition of the Deluge was generally received among the Indians; and that the temptation of Eve, of the fall of man, and of the loss of Paradise, was no less general in the New World. VI 402

* The tradition of the inhabitants of Cuba certainly deserves to be compared with those of the people of Michuacan and Nicaragua, who also approximated to the Mosaic history in their accounts of the Deluge; although the former of the last-mentioned nations believed that it was the colibri, or the humming-bird, and not the dove, that returned with the branch of the tree. VI 394

* The Indians of Chili, according to Rosales, had likewise a tradition of the Deluge; but he observes, that shells and other fossil remains discovered in abundance on the highest ranges of mountains, might have suggested that to them. VI 394

* Don Mariano Fernandez de Echevannia y Veita ... "horrible calamity from excessive rains, accompanied with thunder and lightning, which deluged the whole earth, the highest mountains being covered with water caxtolmalictli, which signifies fifteen cubits, and that only eight persons escaped from this general calamity in a Haptlipetlacalli, which signifies a house resembling a closed ark ... " VIII 25

* ... in the twentieth verse of the seventh chapter of Genesis, "Fifteen cubits upwards did the waters prevail, and the mountains were covered." VIII 25

* The Peruvians were acquainted with the Deluge, and believed the rainbow was the sign that the earth would not again be destroyed by water. This is plain from the speech which Mango Capac, the reputed founder of the Peruvian empire, addressed to his contemporaries on beholding the rainbow rising from a hill; ... recorded by Balboa in the ninth chapter of the third part of his Miscellanea Antartica ... VIII 25

* Torquemada ... Verdad es que los de los Indios de la Isla Cuba dicen que tuvieron conocimiento que havia sido el cielo y las otras cosas criadas; y decian que por tres personas, y que la una vino por tal parte, y las otras dos de otras;y que tuvieron gran noticia del diluvio, y que se havia perdido el mundo por mucha agua; y decian los viejos de mas de setenta y ochenta anos, luego al principio que entraron los nuestros en equella isla, que un viejo sabiendo que havia de venir el diluvio, hico una grande nao, y se metio en ella con su casa y muchos animales, y que envio un cuervo, y no volvio por comer de los cuerpos muertas, y que despues embio una paloma, la qual volvio cantando, y trajo una rama con hoja que paracia hobo, pero que no era hobo; el qual salio del navio, y hico vino de las parras monteses, y se embriago .."

"It is true that the Indians of of the Island of Cuba say that they knew that the heaven and other things had been created; and they affirm by three persons, one of whom came from such a part, and the other two from other parts; and that they were perfectly informed also of the deluge, and that the world had been destroyed by a quantity of water. The old men above seventy and eighty years of age reported, when first our countrymen settled in that island, that an old man knowing that the deluge was about to happen, built a large ship, in which he embarked with his household and many animals, and that he dispatched from thence a crow, which did not return, staying to prey upon the dead caucuses; and that afterwards sent a dove; which came back cooing, bringing a leafy branch which resembled a hop, although not one: on which he quitted the ship, and made wine of mountain grapes and became drunk ... VI 393

* M. de Humboldt says that "The people of Mechoacan preserved a tradition, according to which Coxcox, whom they named Tezpi, embarked in a large acalli, (a word compounded of atl watwr, and calli a house) with his wife, his children, and animals and seeds of various kinds, the preservation of which was valuable to mankind. As soon as the great spirit Tezcatlipoca commanded the waters to retire, Tezpi caused a volture, the Zopilote, (Vultur aurea) to leave the bark. This bird, whose food is carrion, did not return, on account of the number of dead bodies with which the earth only just was strewed. Tezpi sent other birds, of which the Colibri (or humming-bird) alone returned, bearing in its bill the leafy branch of a tree. Tezpi then perceiving that the earth began to be covered with new verdune, quitted his ark near the mountain of Colhuacan." VI 117

Funeral Rites and Imponderables
* In reasoning on the probability of the Indians being descended from the Jews, from a striking resemblance in their mourning ceremonies and funeral rites, the reflection naturally presents itself to the mind, that all mankind are subject to the same feelings of grief for the loss of those dear to them, so the mode of expressing those feelings is among all nations nearly the same, except where the custom has produced a change. When, therefore, we find the Indians and Jews differed from all other nations in their manner of mourning for the dead, and agreed with each other in many arbitrary rites, such as in burning a portion of their household goods, in anointing their bodies with oil, in burning them amidst the loud lamentations of women hired as mourners, in celebrating funeral feasts, in depositing great wealth in their tombs, in mourning for a stated period of time after the decease, in gathering their bones to those of their fathers, and, lastly, in employing the same personal demonstrations of grief, such as falling on their face on the ground, and lying in that position sometimes for three days, placing their hands upon their mouths, humiliating themselves in the dust, blackening their faces with ashes of charcoal, lying in ashes, uttering the ejaculation, Ah, brother! and amongst other Indian tribes, rending the garments, cutting the flesh, and oft the hair, both which latter customs, though strictly forbidden to the Jews ... were commonly practised ... VIII 388 Supplement

* The curious analogy in the customs of the ancient Jews and the Peruvians will more fully appear from a comparison of the following passage from the ninth chapter of Balboa's inedited, 'Miscellanea Antarctica', descriptive of the grief of Mango Capoc for the death of his brother Ayarcache, with the thirtieth verse of the thirteenth chapter of the first book of Kings, and the eighteenth verse of the twenty-second chapter of Jeremiah, from which it is evident that it was a Hebrew custom to utter the ejaculation "Ah, my brother!" or, "Ah, sister!" at funerals: I compliance with the request of their brother Ayarcache, they repeatedly invoked his name and bewailed his loss: Ah, my brother! ...

* ... the Peruvians were accustomed to lament over the tombs of their deceased kindred, imitating the plaintive cooing of doves. ... Isaiah, in the fourteenth verse of the thirty-eighth chapter of his Prophecies ... "I did mourn as a dove ..." ... in the eleventh verse of the fifty-ninth chapter of his Prophecies ... "We roar all like bears, and mourn ... like doves ..."Ezekiel, also in the sixteenth verse of the seventh chapter of his Prophecies, predicts that the Jews who escaped from the final desolation of Israel should mourn like doves in the valleys ... VIII 200,201

* It deserves to be remarked that Josephus notices, in the last chapter of the seventh book of his Jewish Antiquities, the immense riches which Solomon buried with his father David ...

... all the Spanish historians who have treated of the ancient history of the Peruvians affirm that they imitated the Jews in depositing immense riches in the tombs of the Incas, whose bodies, like those of the patriarchs Jacob and Joseph, were carefully embalmed ...

* ... (Mexicans) according to Sagard and Father Hennepin, celebrated, on certain solemn occasions, a mimic resurrection of the body, when they disinterred from the graves the bones of their most renowned warriors, and committed them again to the earth with many ceremonies, and that they entertained the Jewish notion that the body would rise with the same affections and diseases with which it had died, the fact would be explained why the Mexicans were so extremely careful to bury the dead in habits which denoted the peculiar diseases of which they had died, or the crimes which led to their execution, since this would have been typical of the day of judgment, and intended to denote the certainty of resurrection, when all would be judged according to the works which they had done in the flesh. VIII 248

* ... that it is singular that the Spanish Inquisition should have crossed St. Andrew's crosses to be painted upon the dresses of Jews sentenced to be burnt at the solemnization of acts of faith ... since that symbol as well as a cross resembling in shape the Greek letter T, which was in Naples a badge of disgrace which the Jews were compelled to wear to distinguish them from the rest of the community, is not of unusual occurrence in Mexican paintings. VI 389

* It is singular that the Inquisition should have decreed that green as a colour for the dress, and the Greek letter T, which resembles a cross of spurious form, although more like in form to the Latin than is the Greek cross, as also St. Andrew's crosses, should be warned by Jews sentenced to be burnt alive for heresy; since the same symbols were accounted highly honourable by the Mexicans; and the question is curious, how the Inquisition, the Jews, and the Mexicans should ever have come to share such corresponding antipathies. Sahagun informs us in the eighth book of his History of New Spain, not only that Mexican priests were accustomed to wear a green vest when they offered incense to the gods, but the dress likewise of the Mexican kings, when they were taken to the temple immediately after their election to be presented to Huitzilopuchtli, was entirely green, consisting of a green cowl or hood over the head, a green mantle, and green sandals. A cross resembling the Greek T frequently occurs in Mexican paintings, undoubtedly as a religious symbol. The Indians of the Yucatan, as well as the Mexicans, entertained a superstitious reverence for the cross named after Saint Andrew ... VII 153,154 Supplement

The Deity

* "... offered up by the northern Indians, to the bountiful giver, the supreme holy spirit of fire, whom they invoke in that most sacred and awful song, YO He Wah, and loudly ascribe to Him, Hallelu-Yah, for his continued goodness to them." (Adair of sacrifices and offerings) VIII 366 Supplement

* The Indian invocation either of all or some of the syllables of Jehovah, or Yohewah, in their festivals and religious dances, is so remarkable a fact that it will be satisfactory that it does not rest on the single testimony of Adair, but is confirmed by the accounts of writers of other nations, both French and Spanish, and particularly by the original religious songs of the Indians. VIII 384 Supplement

* ... the learned editor of Major Long's 'Expedition to the Rocky Mountains' ... many of the stanzas of which terminate with the syllables Yah-we-he-ya, Whe-he-ya, Hah-he-whe-ya, evidently invocations of the Great Spirit, and clearly enunciative of the Divine name.

* Richard Lauden, describing the yearly festival of the Floridians ... as the sound of Yah-wah, jarred in Lauden's ear, he called it Java, in resemblance to the Syriac and Greek method of expressing the tetra-grannaton, from which Galatinus imposed it upon us, calling it Jehova, instead of Yohewah. VIII 370 Supplement

* Laet, in his description of America, and Escarbotus, assure us, they have often heard the South American Indians to repeat the sacred word Halleluiah, which made them admire how they first attained it. VIII 373 Supplement

* "And the natives of Sir Francis Drake's New Albion were desirous of crowning him Hio, or Ohio, a name well known in North America, and hath an evident relation to the great beloved name. Had the former been endued with a proper capacity, and given a suitable attention to the Indian general law of purity, he would probably have described them singing YoHeWah, Hallelu-Yah & c., after the present manner of our North American red natives." (Adair) .... VIII 368 Supplement

* Don Jose Cortes likewise, describing in his inedited Memoirs the manners and customs of the Apache Indians ... thus notes this frequent recurrence of the syllable Ho in the songs which they used in their religious dances. VIII 384 Supplement

* It may be here observed, that the particle, teo, in the Mexican language prefixed to the names of persons, places and nations, and meaning divine, as in Teocipactli, Teochichimeca, corresponds exactly with, jeru, in Hebrew, which signifies, in the same manner, holy or divine. VI 186

* ... the Mexicans believed, like the Jews, that God was omnipresent both in heaven and in hell ... VI 518
* As a rock and refuge of his chosen people - a name which the Mexicans emphatically bestowed upon Huitzilopochtli ... VIII 180

* ... (from previous excerpt) second verse of the ninety-first Psalm, "I will say of the Lord, He is my refuge and my fortress: my God; in him I will trust. VIII 180

* The omnipresence of the Deity is so often insisted upon in the prayers which the Mexicans addressed to Tezcatlipoca, that it is difficult to imagine but that they must have borrowed that notion from the Jews; for the ancient philosophers did not imagine that their idea of the Deity was heightened by adding to omnipotence and omniscience the attribute of omnipresence, but, on the contrary, that it was materialized and debased by it ... VI 518

* The proof of the Mexicans believing that man was created in the image of God will be found in the following passage of the twelfth chapter of the ninth book of Sahagun's history of New Spain; "My son, we have seen and understood thy desire, and what thou proposest  thyself, which, with tears, thou hast signified to us. We advise thee not to become proud or elated, nor to despise any one. Reverence the old of both sexes, although they be poor, and be compassionate to poor people of humble station; give them what is needful to cover and clothe themselves with, although it be the apparel which thou strippest from thyself; give them meat and drink, for they are the images of God; for this God will increase the days of thy life ... Take care that thou dost not covet another man's wife ... VIII 174, 182

* It would be easy indeed to prove, from a comparison of passages of the sixth book of Sahagun's History of New Spain with parallel passages from Scripture, that all the attributes which the Jews ascribed to the Deity, including his unity, ubiquity, and omniscience, and many other qualities much more characteristic of the peculiar tenets of the Jewish faith, were ascribed by the Mexicans to Tezcatlipoca, whose titles and epithets, agreeing with those of Jehovah, whose history of the creation of the world, and his taking himself a chosen people, being nearly the same, and whose standard of moral rectitude, as displayed in the code of the laws which he gave to the Mexicans, which, harmonizing with a scheme of final retribution and a future state of rewards and punishments, annexed the same penalties as the Jewish code to the same kinds and degrees of guilt,- thus placing Him before our eyes in the same light as moral agent - constitute such a chain of corroborative evidence as clearly to demonstrate that the God worshipped by the Mexicans under the name, Yao, was the same as the Hebrew, Jehovah. VIII 178

* It is however in the more curious combination of the divine attributes, and in their apparent oppositions, that a perfect resemblance may be traced, without any characteristic difference, between the notions which the Mexicans and the Jews formed to themselves of the Deity, who, it need scarcely be observed, can only be known to man by his attributes, his essence being alike inscrutable to all. VIII 178

* ... the oppositions are most strikingly displayed ... the Mexicans, for example, believed that Tezcatlipoca was the creator of heaven and earth, and that nevertheless the period would arrive when he would destroy the one and cast down the other; and that the Jews believed in a like manner that God would, previously to the day of judgement, destroy his whole work of creation .... (the prophet, Joel) "I will shake the heavens, and the earth, and the sea, and the dry land. VIII 178

* ... and it is more important to point out the attributes which the Jews, either exclusively or peculiarly, or in the transcendent sense, ascribed to Jehovah, and in which the Mexicans agreed ... VIII 179

* The Mexican deity Yao, then, is described as the giver of revealed Scripture ... The Ruler of kingdoms ... The Requirer of accounts for human actions ... The Forgiver of sins ... The Possessor of an ark of mercies ... A Just Judge ... The Enjoiner of rectitude and justice to all mankind ... The Trier and Prover of hearts ... The Promoter of dignities from the meanest and most abject conditions ... The Predestinator of all things ... The Father of all mankind ... The Elector of kings, and bestower of kingdoms ... The Absolute Disposer of dignities ... The Holder of all things in his hand ... He in whose sight no man is perfect and free from sin ... He who takes away from the mighty and gives to the humble and meek ... The God of a chosen people ... The only Supreme God ... He who has the power to kill both the body and soul ... He who stirs up war against disobedient states ... The Shelter of people beneath his wings ... He who chastises the sins of the multitude by the infliction of great national calamities ... He in whom we live and breathe and have our being ... The Creator of man in His own image ... He who ordained that man should live by the sweat of his brow ... The Sender of his own spirit upon men, and the Giver of inspiration ... He who jests at human affairs, and turns men into derision ... He who has favourites among men, and persons after his own heart ... He who accounts the good and the virtuous amongst mankind his children and sons ... The Disposer and Ordainer of all things ... The Confounder of His enemies, and He who makes them stagger like drunken men ... The Bestower of wisdom ... The Supreme Lord of the Universe ... He who requires that men should serve him with all their hearts and with all their strength ... He who is an omnipresent God ... A severe and righteous Judge ... The Father, Creator, and Lord of all ... He who bids men hope and trust in him ... A perfect God ... The Ordainer of marriage ... The Joiner together of all married persons ... The Appointer in heaven of all marriages which take place on earth ... He who fashions children in their mothers' wombs ... The Giver of children ... The God of a blameless and chosen people ... He who has infinite ways of chastising the disobedient ... The Punisher of the wicked in a lake of everlasting misery ... The sender of the wicked to hell ... He who punishes the children for the sins of the parents ... He who gives length of days ... The Elevator of kings from the lowest among the people ... A God of battles ... A God of war, and Stirrer-up of strife ... The Lover of the meek ... The Loather of all sensual sins ... He who requires an account from men of their thoughts as well as their actions ... The God of prayer and supplication ... The God of psalms and thanksgivings ... The Appointer and Knower of times ... The God of sacrifices ... the Acceptor of meat offerings and drink offerings ... The Requirer of Importunity in prayer ... The God who resides above the nine heavens ... He who knows the secrets of hearts ... The Acceptor of the intercession of saints and holy persons deceased ... He who visits the sins of the fathers upon the children ... He who commands men to honor their parents ... He who enjoined mankind to practise charity towards each other, and to love their neighbors ... The God of confession, and the Acceptor of the penitent ... The Imposer of penance for the expiation of sin ... The Hater of adulterers ... The Giver of inspiration ... The Giver of all gifts to men ... He who imparts His word to men ... He whose will should be done, and in whom all should put their trust ... The Predestinator of all things ... The God who awards retribution in another world, for all good or evil actions performed in this ... The God who delights in good works ... VIII 179, 180

* Those who have acquired by an attentive study of Scripture, of the revealed attributes of the Deity, will immediately perceive that in the above list (previous excerpt) assigned by Mexicans to the Deity, are contained the most material attributes which the Old Testament assigns to Him, some of which are very peculiar and characteristic of the Jews ... VIII 180

* Herrera ... "Con todo eso confesaban los Mexicanos a un supremo Dios, Senor i Hacendor de todo, i este era el principal que venaraban, mirando al cielo, llamandole Criador del Cielo i tierra, i admirable, y otras nombres de gran excelencia." "The Mexicans, notwithstanding, confessed a supreme God, the Lord, and Framer of the Universe; and he was the principal object whom they adored, looking up to heaven and calling Him the Creator of heaven and earth, and the wonderful, with other epithets of great excellence." VI 60

* Torquemada ... relates a very curious fact, that Cabeca de Vaca and some other Spaniards traveling through some unknown provinces of America, arrived amongst certain Indians, who, on being questioned as to their religion, informed them that they worshipped one God, the Creator of heaven and earth; and being further asked from whom they derived that doctrine, they replied, from their ancestors, who had handed it down by tradition to them ... VI

* ... the admission of the best informed Spanish historians, who were ecclesiastics, that the Indians generally throughout the continent of America had some knowledge of the true God: this was a great admission on their part, because it was opposed to their own prejudices, and those of the age in which they lived ... VI 113

* The Peruvians, whose religion was derived from the same source as that of the Mexicans, believed in one supreme Deity, the sole creator and governor of the universe ... VI 128

* ... to point out the probability that God's promise to Jeremiah, "Thou shalt be as my mouth," was known to the Mexicans; since the newly elected king of Mexico, in a prayer of Thanksgiving to Tezcatlipoca, there emphatically says of kings in general, "Vuestros instrumentos y vuestras imagenes para regir vuestros reynos, estando dentro de ellos y hablando por su boca, y pronunciando ellos vuestras palabras." "They are thine instruments and thine images to govern thy kingdoms, thou being in them, and speaking through their mouth, and they pronouncing thy words." VI 371

* ... the Mexican notion, that the throne on which Montezuma and his predecessors sat belonged to the Deity, whose vicegerents they were, and was a seat of judicature, from which they pronounced judgments comfortable to the revealed will of God, and prompted by his inspiration. This extraordinary belief of the Mexicans is fully developed in the speech of the Mexican orator in the sixteenth chapter of the sixth book of Sahagun's History of New Spain, where its conformity with the declaration of Scripture, that God elevates kings to thrones, and again debases them when he thinks fit, is extremely deserving of notice, and it serves to remind us of the history of Saul and David. VIII 171

* The literal signification of the proper name Tonacatecutli is 'God of flesh', a title to which God expressly lays claim in his declaration to Jeremiah ... "Behold, I am the Lord, the God of all flesh: is there anything too hard for me ? VIII 30

Temples

* Cihnateocalli was the proper name of a Mexican temple, in which may be recognised, as forming a part in the compound name, the word Cinha, which corresponds exactly in sound with Sina ... from which God delivered the laws and tablets of stone to Moses, the initial letter c having a line under it, and therefore being pronounced in Spanish like s or z. VI 71

* The Mexican mode of fortification seems chiefly to have existed in their teocallis, or temples, which were also like the temple of Jerusalem, arsenals; and in the thick walls which surrounded their cities, protected on the outside with a fosse with ramparts above. ... and  Cortes complains of the annoyance which his soldiers experienced from the Mexicans, who fought from the tops of their houses and threw missiles from behind the embattlements. It is certainly that this curious mode of turreting the roofs of houses should have existed in Mexico, as it was in strict conformity with Mosaic law: "When thou buildest a new house, then thy shall make a battlement for thy roof, that thou bring not blood upon thine house, if any man fall from thence." VI 77

* The Indian historian Tezozomoc further remarks, that they took that opportunity (dedication of temples and new altars) of making a display of their riches to strangers, whom they invited for the special purpose to their Court, and afterwards dismissed with rich presents. This latter trait of policy reminds us of the above-mentioned (Solomon) monarch's gallantry towards the Queen of Sheba. VIII 82

* that the Jews were expressly commanded, in the fortieth verse of the twenty-third chapter of Leviticus, to carry boughs and branches of trees in their hands as a religious ceremony ... The Mexicans were accustomed to decorate profusely their temples with branches of trees and flowers, and to carry them in their hands in certain festive processions. VI 292

* The Mexican temples contained fountains or ponds in their courtyards in which the priests performed their ablutions; and Solomon is said, in the seventh chapter of the First Book of Kings, to have a molten sea which contained two thousand baths, which served the same purpose, and it is to be supposed stood in the court of the temple. VI 377

* The Mexicans and the Jews were accustomed to celebrate their religious festivals with dances in the courts of their temple ... that they originally constituted a very essential feature in the rites of the Jewish religion, as they did also of the Mexican, no one will attempt to deny. VIII 172

* The Mexicans to decorate the inner walls of their temples and palaces with figures painted in vermilion.
... twenty-third chapter of Ezekiel "When she saw men portrayed upon the wall, the images of Chaldeans portrayed with vermilion ..." VI 377

* The walls of the Mexican temples were delicately plastered, and frequently ornamented with stucco, especially the temple of Palenque ... Ecclesiasticus 22:17 " A heart settled upon a thought of understanding is a fair plastering on the wall of a gallery." VI 380

* M. Dupaix, in describing the figures in plaster upon the walls of the temple of Palenque, notices a peculiarity in them all, the excessive size of the nose. He did not perhaps know that Solomon ascribed beauty and majesty to countenances distinguished by that characteristic ... an exaggeration of the Hebrew line of beauty ... VI 380

* Every thing that related to the preserving unextinguished the sacred fires which burnt in their temples, was considered by the Mexicans as a matter of the utmost consequence. 2 Maccabees 1 "For when our fathers were led into Persia, the priests that were then devout took the fire of the altar privily, and hid it in a hollow place of a pit without water, where they kept it sure, so that the place was unknown to all men ..." VI 377

* The Mexican priests, like the Levites, bathed and made frequent use of ablutions in their religious ceremonies: some of them like the Jewish Nazarites, permitted their hair to grow without ever cutting it. VI 292

* In the same way as amongst the Jews none were permitted except the Levites to enter the secret place of sanctuary, so the Mexican ritual forbade any but the priests to enter the sanctuary of Tetzcatlipoca. VI 292
8 The Mexican priests lodged round their temples in chambers built for the express  purpose... Chronicles 9:27 "And they lodged round about the house of God, because the charge was upon them, and the opening thereof every morning pertained to them ..." VI 377

* These priests are constantly named Levites by Acosta; and certainly that learned author may be excused for giving them that appellation, as the temple service of the Mexicans was in reality very like that of the Jews ... VI 281

* It is said in the thirty-fifth chapter of Exodus, of the Israelites: "And they came ... and brought bracelets, and ear-rings, and rings, and tablets, all jewels of gold: and every man that offered, offered an offering of gold unto the Lord." ...the Mexicans were accustomed to present at the shrines of their gods jewels of gold, bracelets, and necklaces ... VI 292

* Many passages in the Old Testament would lead us to imagine that the grand plan, at least, of the greater temple of Mexico resembled that of the temple of Jerusalem ... VI 377,378

* Returning to the consideration of other Hebrew analogies in the Indian rites and ceremonies,- having already mentioned the temple of Mexico, the fire that was continually burning in it, the celebration of the festivals of the new moons and the offering of first-fruits at stated seasons of the year; we may further observe, that the Mexicans in other parts of their temple service resembled the Jews. Like the Jews, besides sacrifices, they offered incense, flowers, and golden chains and jewels ... It is unnecessary to quote Scripture to show that to offer incense in their temple was a Jewish custom, since no nation except the Indians ever came near the Jews in their prodigality in making this offering to the Deity ...

* ... it is not too much to suppose ... that the Jews did on their arrival in America ... determine to commemorate their ancient temple, by building there other temples of great magnificence in imitation of it; such as were the temple of Pachacama, (or of the Creator) situated at the distance of four miles from the city of Lima; and the greater temple of Mexico.

...of the city and the holy hill ... and called Churula after Jerusalem, and Tlachihualtepetl (or the Hill of Sacrifice) after Mount Sion ... VI 388

* As the temple at Jerusalem contained great store of gold and silver vessels ... so the Peruvian temples were excessively rich in precious vases ... VI 293

* ... according to Garcia, they should have approached their temple with the same reverential custom of pulling off their sandals when within a certain number of paces distant from it. VI 293
Sabbath

* Among the many arguments which might be adduced to prove that religious rites of the Indians were of Hebrew origin, however corrupted in the course of ages by tradition, one not of the least convincing is, that they considered it a matter of religious duty to abstain from work on all religious festivals, or in other words, had sabbath which they kept holy, by resting on them from all manner of labour. VIII 218

* Oviedo takes notice of this curious analogy (above excerpt) in the religious customs of the the Indians and the Jews .... in his history of the Indies; and Calancha corroborates his testimony in his 'Chronica Moralizada del Orden de S. Augustin en el Peru ... VIII 218

* ... Dr. Boudinot, who referring, in the 165th page of his 'Star of the West', to Mr. William Bartram's 'Journal of his Travels through the Creek Country', states on the authority of that gentleman, and afterwards on his own, that the Indians kept the seventh day religiously sacred to the Great Spirit. VIII 218

* The following is the passage in which this curious fact is recorded: "Mr. Bartram says, while he was at Attasse in the Creek nation on a sabbath day, he observed a great solemnity in the town, and a remarkable silence and retiredness of the red inhabitants. Few of them were to be seen, the doors of their dwellings were shut, and if a child chanced to stray out, it was quickly drawn indoors again. He asked the meaning of this, and was immediately answered, that it being the white people's sabbath the Indians kept it religiously sacred to the great Spirit. VIII 218

* The institution of sabbaths, or stated days of rest from all manual labor, formed so peculiar a feature in the Mosaic law, and was so characteristic of Judaism, that it is but reasonable to suppose that the Mexicans, if descended from the Jews, would have retained some memorial of this long-established usage of their ancestors. We are accordingly informed by Diego Duran ... in his History of New Spain, that they religiously refrained from all work on their principal festivals, including in the number not only their new moons, but likewise the first sign of these lesser cycles of thirteen days ... VIII 240

* ... the resemblance between the laws of the Mexicans and the Jews ... of their ritual observances ... This likeness, which principally consisted in the respect which the Mexicans displayed for their sabbaths, in their religious observances of vows, in the frequent use of ablutions as a mode of purification from sin, and in the institution of colleges for the public education of youth, in which the rites and ceremonies of their religion were the primary object of instruction ... VIII 213
Arks / Babel

*... since nothing could savour more strongly of Judaism than their making use of an ark in war, which is likewise stated by Adair of the Cherokee Indians ... and recorded by Las Casas of the Indians of Honduras in the hundred and eightieth chapter of his inedited 'Historia Apologetica', who esteemed their ark so sacred, that to profane it by a touch they thought would be followed by the instant death of the guilty party. VIII 236

* ... 'Historia de la Nueva Espana', in which express mention is made of an ark, with the additional curious fact recorded that the form of the god which it contained ever remained unknown, whence it is evident that God could have no image, Tezcatlipoca being a spirit whose shadow, but not whose form, had been occasionally seen by men ... VIII 258

* It is very deserving of remark, that as amongst the Jews the ark was a sort of portable temple in which the Deity was supposed to be continually present, and which was accordingly borne on the shoulders of the priests as a sure refuge and defence from their enemies, so amongst the Mexicans and Indians of Michuacan and Honduras an ark was held in the highest veneration, and was considered an object too sacred to be touched by any but priests. VIII 258

* The same religious reverence for the ark (as previous excerpt) is stated by Adair to have existed among the Cherokee and other Indian tribes inhabiting the banks of the Mississippi, and his testimony is corroborated by the accounts of Spanish authors of the greatest veracity. VIII 258

* ... the Tultecas actually built towers in memory of the Tower of Babel. VI 387, 388

* Bouturini ... "The Indians likewise celebrated their sad origin in ancient songs, and retained such perfect recollection of the Tower of Babel, that they sought to imitate it in various monstrous edifices of the New world." "Celebraron assimismo los Indios su dicho origen en antiques cantares, y tuvieron tan viva la memoria de la Torre de Babel, que la quisieron imitar en America con varios monstruosos edificios." VI 388

* from the Idea de una Nueva Historia ... "original Tultec map recorded events of the greatest antiquity, especially the confusion of tongues which took place at the time of the Tower of Babel ... on which occasion seven Tultecas, who assisted in the building of said tower, perceiving that they could not understand the others, separated themselves, together with their wives and sons ... VI 245
Marriage

* The Mexican marriage ceremony differed very little from that in use among the Tultecas, from which nation they were by intermarriages descended, and the manners of both nations bore a striking resemblance to the those of the Jews. VIII 170

* ... Sahagun's History of New Spain gives a minute description of the various rites which accompanied the celebration of Mexican marriages; and it is really amazing to find how many Hebrew customs and superstitions were mixed up with that ceremony. VIII 170

* ... necessarily led to the same moral results in both hemispheres, and we accordingly find that the relative duties of husband and wife were considered the same by the Mexicans and the Jews ... VIII 172

* It was a Hebrew custom to solemnize a marriage with feasts, and for the guests to indulge freely in wine ...

* The latter custom (above excerpt) is likewise described by Sahagun as extremely prevalent amongst the Mexicans, who, although, they were forbidden on other occasions to drink wine, were allowed at such festivals to drink to excess ... VIII 170

* The scrupulous care with which the more civilized Indian nations, as well as the most barbarous, under which latter denomination may include the Brazilians, avoided marrying within the degrees of cosanguinity prohibited to the Jews, and especially the punishments inflicted by them on those who transgressed these regulations, afford a strong argument in favour of the Jews having established their empire in the New world.

* A curious analogy between the Peruvian mode of celebrating marriages by means of a sandal fastened on the foot of the bride, and that which appears to have been the custom in ancient times among the Jews ...

* The custom of widows being deemed, in the case of elder brothers, inheritable property amongst the Jews, appears to have led to some shameful outrages of public decency in Peru ... VIII 115

Homicide vs. Premeditated Murder

* That the more North American Indian tribes drew the same line of distinction between premeditated murder and homicide as the Jews, will immediately appear from the perusal of the following extract from 'Tanner's Narrative of his captivity among the Indians,' which gives an account of a homicide committed by an Indian belonging the Ottawwaw tribe, under the peculiar circumstances of intoxication. "It was evident to all that the young man he had wounded could not recover; indeed he was now manifestly near his end. When our companion returned, we had made up a considerable present, one giving a blanket, one a piece of strouding, some one thing and some another. With these he immediately returned, and placing them on the ground beside the wounded man, he said to the relatives who were standing about, My friends, I have, as you see, killed this your brother, but I knew not what I did, I had no ill will against him; and when a few days since he came to our camp I was glad to see him. But drunkedness made me a fool, and my life is justly forfeited to you. I am poor and among strangers, but some of those who came from my own country would gladly bring me back to my parents; and they therefore sent me with this small present. My life is in your hands, and my present is before you; take what you choose; my friends will have no cause to complain. He then sat down beside the wounded man, and stooping his head hid his eye with his hands, and waited for them to strike. Both the mother of the man he had wounded, an old woman, came a little forward and said,
For myself and my children, I can answer that we wish not, to take your life, but I cannot promise to protect you from the resentment of my husband, who is now absent: nevertheless I will accept your present; And whatever influence I have with him, I shall not fail to use it in your behalf. I know that it was not from design or on account of any previous hatred that you have done this, and why should your mother be made to cry as well ?”

Odds and Ends

* It must be admitted that the ancient paintings of the Mexicans are replete with Jewish images and concepts. 

* ... which the prophet Joel had foretold ... 'The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before the great an terrible day of the Lord come.' It is remarkable that the sun and moon turned into blood frequently occurs in Mexican paintings. VI 159

* The interpreter of the Codex-Telleriano-Remensis says ... that a flight of birds which darkened the sun was one of the signs which preceded the destruction of the Mexican empire. VIII 265

* ... that the native traditions of the people of Guatemala, (who claimed, as being descended from the Tultecas, cosanguinly with the Mexicans) recorded that their ancestors were Jews who had quitted Palestine, or that part of Arabia which is contiguous to the Red Sea, and had crossed the Atlantic to America ...

* Gomara says that the Mexicans were accustomed to put a little quick lime on the knees of the infant, which ceremony Torquemada supposes signified emblematically "Dust thou art, and unto dust that shalt return."

* It is a remarkable fact, that the Brazen Altar in Leviticus, an engraving of which may be found in the old editions of Prideaux's Connection, is a model in miniature of the Mexican Teocallis: they are quite alike except that the ascent to the Teocallis was by stairs consisting of steps, and the ascent to the Brazen Altar was by an inclined plane. VI 178

* The Jews believe that the shrill sound of the horn or the trumpet stirs the soul to repentance ... It is singular that the Mexicans should have entertained the same notion. VI 223

* It may be remarked , that most of the speeches in the above mentioned book (Sahagun's History of New Spain - 6th book) have a strong tincture of Jewish rhetoric, the same complacent mode of speaking of themselves as God's peculiar people, the same familiar converse with the Deity, beginning frequently as in Abraham's dialogue with God, with the word 'Peradventure' (Por Ventura); the same unceasing solicitude after dreams, visions, and inspirations; the same manner of addressing each other by the appellation of Brethren; and finally the same choice of metaphors distinguish the composition of the Jews and the Mexicans...

* It appeaars that the custom of falling down upon the face, and putting dust on the head, was in general use amongst the Jews in the age of Joshua; but to eat earth, both amongst the Jews and the Mexicans, was a mark of still deeper humiliation. VIII 33

* Garcia particularly notices, that the Peruvians were accustomed to rend their garments as a sign of grief; and he instances the example of the Inga Guaynacapac, who rent his clothes on hearing that his son Atahualpa had sustained a defeat from the enemy ... VIII 33

* M. Dupaix observes that the Mexican temples, or Teocalli, were turned towards the east or at least their sides were adjusted to the cardinal points of the compass, and that the sancellum or sanctuary above faced the east ... The sides of the Hebrew tabernacle were likewise turned to the cardinal points of the compass.

* Another remarkable proof of the predilection which the Jews and the Mexicans manifested ... celebrating a year of jubilee at the expiration of every period of fifty years (Jews), and ... at the expiration of every fifty-two years (Mexicans) VI 505

* Jarros informs us, in his History of Guatemala, that the territory comprised three monarchies, two of which acknowledged a sort of feudal supremacy in Utatlan, which latter state is said to have been for many ages governed by the princes of Jewish descent. VIII 141

* but the Zemes, or charms which Peter Martyr says that ... were pieces of paper containing written portions of the law ... the Indians of Haiti and Santo Domingo bound on their foreheads when they went to war ... the Jews ... that which was placed between their eyes ... phylacteries ... VI 391

* These rejoicings were renewed on the eighth day after its birth, when the child was circumcised; whence in all probability originated the value which the Jews set on the number eight, which number was equally esteemed by the Mexicans ... VIII 202 Supplement

* Abimelech is said in the forty-fifth verse of the ninth chapter of Judges, to have, "beat down the city (of Shechem), and sowed it with salt;" which accompanying act was doubtless to signify that the site of the city was thenceforward accursed. The association of salt in the minds of Jews and Peruvians with something accursed, argues an identity of feeling. VIII 151

* The Hebrew custom of rejoicing with branches of trees, and welcoming the arrival of distinguished guests by strewing them on the roads, is noticed in the New Testament ...

... the reception of Cortes by Montezuma, who, relying on ancient prophecies, believed him to be Quetzalcoatle, and went out of the city of Mexico to meet him accompanied with a great multitude of the citizens, carrying branches of trees in their hands, was not unlike the Jews reception of Christ ... VIII 170

* Before the arrival of the day appointed for carrying these first fruits to the temples and altars, no one dared to smell them, for they were forbidden to do so by an express law; as the Jews were forbidden to taste the ears of corn ... VI 282

* Mexican traditions seem also to refer to the creation of the one sex from the bone of the other, as recorded in the second chapter of Genesis ... since the Mexicans believed that both sexes had been created from a bone ... VI 403

* ... the Muskohge Indians formerly reckoned it adultery if a man took a pitcher of water off a married woman's head and drank of it; since if they, in commemoration of Rebekah going to the well and drawing a pitcher of water for the servant of Abraham, by who she was affianced to Isaac ... VIII 380 Supplement

* Diego Duran compares the offerings which the Mexican priests received from their laity, to the sin offerings and oblations given by the Jews to the Levites. VIII 228

* ... that a vacant chair should be placed for Elias ...The Mexicans ... had a similar custom of placing a vacant chair at every angle of their streets for Tezcatlipoca, who they imagined to be frequently present amongst their habitations.

* Isaiah, whose Prophecies the Mexicans were acquainted with by paintings and tradition ...

* The Jews considered the brazen serpent which Moses lifted up in the wilderness as a type of the coming of their future Messiah; and since the Mexicans were so well acquainted with the early history of the Pentateuch, and with the signs and wonders which Moses performed in Egypt by uplifting his rod, which became a serpent, it is probable that they were not ignorant of the history of the brazen serpent, and that Quecalcoatle (which proper name signifies the precious feathered serpent) was so named after the memorable prodigy of the serpent in the wilderness, the feathers perhaps alluding to the rabbinical tradition ...

* It is very extraordinary that the Mexicans should have assigned to the serpent the same quality of superior wisdom as the Jews did, since we read of no other nations except the Jews and the Mexicans who believed in that fact in natural history. VI 356

* throughout the extensive empire of the Ingas, since those arts and inventions which have been the subject of Hebrew legislation, such as battlements on houses, and fringes on garments, were precisely the ones which the Jews who colonized America would have been most likely to have carried over with them to that continent. VIII 150

* Sahagun, describing in the first paragraph in the twenty-ninth chapter of the tenth book of his History of New Spain the manners of the Tultecas, says, "La manera de cortarse el cabellera segun su uso pulido que traian los cabellos desde la media cabeza otras."

"They cut their hair in such a manner as to wear it agreeably to their refined fashion, only on the hinder half of their head." VI 535

* That precisely the same custom (from previous excerpt) prevailed among the Jews, we learn from the following verse from the poet Nonnus's Paraphrase of the Gospel of St. John: "Christ, an invited guest, sat in company with the revelling crew, who were bald except at the back of their heads." VI 535

* The trophy of a hand borne upon the top of a staff was used by the ancient Mexicans, and is sometimes represented in their mythological paintings. It is singular that a hand elevated aloft should also have been a Hebrew trophy ... VI 530

* The paintings of the Mexicans show that censers were used in profusion in the ceremonies of their religion ... "And Moses unto Korah, Be thou and all thy company before the Lord, thou, and they, and Aaron, tomorrow: and take every man his censer, and put incense in them, and bring ye before the Lord every man his censer, two hundred and fifty censers; thou also, and Aaron, each of you his censer." VI 376, 377

* The Mexicans were accustomed their respect for the persons of ambassadors by burning odoriferous perfumes in censers before them ...

... Daniel 2:46 "Then the king Nebuchadnezzar fell upon his face, and worshipped Daniel, and commanded that they should offer an oblation and sweet odours to him." VI 377

* In a Mexican painting in the Bodleian library at Oxford is a symbol very much resembling the jaw-bone of an ass, from the side of which water seems to flow forth; which night allude to the story of Samson slaying a thousand of the Philistines with sich a bone, which remained miraculously unbroken in his hands, and from which he afterwards quenched his thirst. VI 361

* Boturini affirms ... that the Tultecas recorded in their historical paintings the great eclipse which took place at the Crucicifixion; and Balbloa asserts, in his Miscellane Antarctica, that the Peruvians had a tradition of the graves being opened about the same period. It would not, therefore, have been surprising if the Mexicans, who were descended from the Tultecas, had preserved a tradition of the earthquake that accompanies the eclipse, and which was the cause of the graves being opened ... VIII 7

* The Mexicans resembled the Jews in believing that every great event must necessarily be preceded by its particular sign. This notion, which even the disciples seem to have imbided, probably originated in the Hebrew doctrine of types. VIII 90

* The interpreter of the Codex-Telleriano-Remensis informs us that the Mexicans believed that the star Sital-Choloha smoked some few years before the arrival of the Spaniards amongst them. So singular a belief probably originated in that prophecy of Joel to which Christ himself refers in the twenty-fifth verse of the twenty-first chapter of St Luke. VIII 91

* The Mexican kings appear to have ... imitated the example of the same king (David), in getting up at midnight to pray; who thus commands his midnight vigils in the sixty-second verse of the hundred and nineteenth Psalm, "At midnight I will rise to give thanks unto thee because of my righteous judgments."

* ... from the third chapter of the history of the same author (Don Mariano Fernandez de Echevarria y Veitia), contains the Mexican tradition of the sun having stood still ... as affording presumptive evidence of either Jews or Christians having in early ages colonized that continent. VIII 27

* ... since the national unity of the Mexicans must have been so highly flattered at believing themselves to be the chosen people of God, who has wrought the most extraordinary miracles in their favour on their quitting Aztlan, Himself forsaking heaven to be present at their camp, as their legislator and the guide of their way, and assuming the titles of Tetzauhtectl (the God of armies, and the terrible God to strike fear and dismay into the breasts of other enemies) ... VI 244

* Isaiah ... that the Jews should gird themselves with sackcloth, as an emblem of grief, and that there should be "baldness upon all their heads," which further leads us to observe, that it was a Mexican custom to shave off the hair from their heads as an indication of grief ...Cieza de Leon, describing in the sixty-third chapter of his Chronicle of Peru the funeral ceremonies of the ancient Peruvians, "... se cortavan los cabellos, hasta quedar sin ningunos." VIII 204

* It deserves to be remarked, that the Mexicans ... in the same way as the Jews were accustomed to represent the Deity by the symbol of a human eye within a triangle ... VI 128

* The names of the Chiapanese chiefs whose heads are found on the calendar, bear a considerable resemblance to Hebrew proper names; and even the signs of the Mexican calendar seem to have some reference to the emblems under which Jacob, when dying, predicted the destinies of his posterity. VI 388

* ... makes it probable that if the Jews invented the signs of the Mexican calendar, the sign Malinalli, which is composed of the jaw-bone of a man with grass growing out of it, would refer to the fourteenth verse of the sixty-sixth chapter of Isaiah, which they say alludes to the resurrection, where it says, "Your bones shall flourish like an herb ..." VI 131

* It is not at all surprising that the Spaniards should have been curious to learn the secret history of the Yucatan, where they found the cross adored, the doctrine of Trinity known, and many rites analogous to those practised amongst Christians established ... VI 141

* We learn also, from the twenty-sixth verse of the twentieth chapter of Judges, that sitting, rather than kneeling, was the attitude in which the Jews besought the Lord in the temple; which singularly agrees with the Mexican custom of sitting before the shrine of Tezcatlipoca to ask forgiveness for their sins ... VIII 217

* It is a remarkable fact that ancient Hebrew inscriptions have been discovered in the Canary Islands, which is clear proof that the Jews in early ages passed the Pillars of Hercules: there would be nothing therefore improbable in the supposition, that the Jews who embarked from Sicily meditated a voyage over the Atlantic. 

* It is singular that the Indians of the West India islands should have agreed with some of the Talmudists ... that man has three souls, and that one belonged to the heart, whilst the other two were assigned to the head and arms ... VIII 160

* ... the Peruvians entertained precisely the same notion of the soul quitting the body during sleep ...

* The priests of Huitzilopuchtli, like the Levites, succeeded also to their office by belonging to a certain tribe ... VI 69

* In nothing did the civil policy of the Mexicans more closely resemble that of the Jews than in their dedicating their children at the temple, and afterwards sending them there to be instructed by the master, or, as we might say, the Superior Rabbi, in the doctrines of their religion and their moral ceremonial laws. VI 49

* It was a Jewish custom to eat earth as a sign of humility; and to cover the mouth with the hand was a very ancient Hebrew mark of respect ...... (Job) "When the almighty was yet with me ... The princes refrained talking, and laid their hand on their mouth." "Mark me, and be astonished, and lay your hand upon your mouth." It is very deserving of notice, that to place the hand on the mouth, or to cover the mouth with the hand, after having previously touched earth with it, was a Mexican ceremony indicative of extreme respect and reverence. This was the salutation with which Montezuma received Cortes ... VIII 39


                                                                   Cortés & Malinche

* ... that the Mexicans felt superstitious scruples about looking back, when the occasion of a person's departing was solemn and important ...  ... and it is difficult to imagine that they were wholly ignorant of the tradition of Lot's wife having been turned into a pillar of salt, as recorded in ... Genesis. VIII 201

* ... the Peruvians were accustomed to lament over the tombs of their deceased kindred, imitating the plantive cooing of doves. ... Isaiah, in the fourteenth verse of the thirty-eighth chapter of his Prophecies ... "I did mourn as a dove ..." ... in the eleventh verse of the fifty-ninth chapter of his Prophecies ... "We roar all like bears, and mourn ... like doves ..." Ezekiel, also in the sixteenth verse of the seventh chapter of his Prophecies, predicts that the Jews who escaped from the final desolation of Israel should mourn like doves in the valleys ... VIII 200,201

* ... the remarkable fact of three years having been suffered to elapse before the Pope and Charles the Fifth permitted any of the religious orders to enter Mexico, whose reason for this delay was perhaps to allow time to the secular arm to efface some unequivocal traces of Judaism, which would have been sure to attract the notice of a clerical order of men, however they might have been passed over unheeded by the military followers of Cortes. VIII 122

* The extreme pertinacity which the Indians, both of Peru and Mexico, displayed in adhering to their religion ... The second reason for believing that Judaism was the religion of the Indians is, that they used circumcision. The third, that they expected a Messiah. The fourth, that many words incorporated in their languages and connected with the celebration of their religious rites, were obviously either of Hebrew or Greek derivation. The fifth, that Las Casas, the bishop of Chiapa, who had the best means of verifying the fact, was of this opinion. The sixth, that the Jews themselves, including some of the most eminent rabbis, such as Menasseh Ben Israel and Montecinio, who, though not a rabbi, was a Jew who had visited America, maintained it both by verbal statement and in writing. The seventh is the dilemma in which the most learned Spanish authors, such as Acosta and Torquemada, have placed their readers by leaving them no other alternative than to come to the decision whether the Jews had colonized America and established their rites amongst the Indians ... The eighth is the resemblance which many of the Indian rites and ceremonies bore to those of the Jews. The ninth is the similitude, which existed between many of the Indian and many of the Hebrew moral laws. The tenth is the knowledge  which the Mexican and Peruvian traditions implied that the Indians possessed of the history contained in the Pentateuch. The eleventh is the Mexican tradition Teoamaxtl: or divine book of the Tultecas. The twelfth is the Mexican history of their famous migration from Aztlan. The thirteenth is the traces of Jewish superstitions, history, traditions, laws, manners, and customs, which are found in the Mexican paintings. The fourteenth is the frequency of sacrifices amongst the Indians, and the religious consecration of the blood and the fat of the victims. The fifteenth is the style of architecture of their temples. The sixteenth is the fringes which the Mexicans wore fastened to their garments. The seventeenth is a similarity in the manners and customs of Indian tribes far removed from the central monarchies of Mexico and Peru (but still within the pale of religious proselytism) to those of the Jews, which writers who were not Spaniards have noticed, such as Sir William Pen ... VI 115

Messiah

* ... the Mexicans were acquainted with the language which the Jews were accustomed to employ when alluding to the birth of the Messiah ... "Come quickly since we expect you."

* Nothing can be inferred from the silence of Sahagun on this point, except, perhaps, that being acquainted with the antipathy which was manifested of his age, who were the clergy, to the theory that the Mexicans were descended from the Jews, he did not choose to say anything unguardedly which might lend a strong corroboration to that opinion; and hence it is not improbable that, well knowing that the Mexicans did expect a Messiah, and even alluded, in the set speeches of congratulations which they addressed to each other on the births of their children, to the possibility of his being born in their days and being of their race, he dissimulated his knowledge, from a fear that the eloquent orations of the ancient Mexicans, in which traces of that expectation seem to occur, should be consigned to oblivion .... VIII 66

* ... from the writings of Acosta himself, as well as from the works of Sahagun (previous Lost Tribes Info excerpt, notwithstanding) and Torquemada, and the commentary of the anonymous interpreter of the Vatican MS., that the Indians of New Spain did expect a Messiah whom they even named Mexi ... VI 338

* The following passage, translated from the second section of the seventh chapter of the Third Book of Garcia's, Origin of the Indians, shows that the attention of that learned writer had been drawn to this coincidence: 'In New Spain the word Mesico is found, which as Brother Stephen de Salacar remarks, is Hebrew, and is therefore introduced in the second Psalm, and signifies His anointed ... since the leader who conducted those who peopled Mexico was named Mesi, or as others write Mexi; and the city and nation were afterward called after him, in the same way as we see that many cities, provinces and nations have been named after those who peopled or founded them, or to whom they owed their origin, as we shall presently point out. The word Mesi should be noted as being really Hebrew, and it agrees surprisingly with the name of the chief, head, or captain of the Mexicans.' (Lost Tribe Info note ... according to modern Jewish interpretation, the word, Mesi, may bear a relationship to the word Moshiach) VI 186

* Sahagun ... alluded, in the set speeches of congratulations which they addressed to each other on the births of their children, to the possibility of His (the Messiah's) being born in their days and being of their race ...

Explorers, Missionaries et al

* Pen's Letter on the Present State of the Lands of the English in America, p. 156 ... "Moreover they reckon by the moon; they offer the first fruits; and have a kind of feast of the tabernacles. It is said that their altar stands on twelve stones. Their mourning lasts a year. The customs of their women are like those of the Jews. Their language is masculine, short, concise, and full of energy, in which it resembles the Hebrew. One word serves for three, and the rest is supplied by the understanding of the hearers. Lastly, they were to go into a country which was neither planted nor known, and He that imposed this condition upon them, was able to level their passage thither; for we go from the eastern extremities of Asia to the western extremities of America." VI 117

* Robert Williams, the first Englishman in New England who is said to have learned the Indian language in order to convert the natives, believed them to be Jews. ... and he (Williams) assures us ... that their language bore some affinity to the Hebrew. VIII 373 Supplement

* ... the celebrated North American missionary John Eliot ... saw the Indians using many parables in their discourses, much given to anointing their heads, much delighted in dancing, especially after victories, computing their time by nights and months, giving dowries for wives, and causing their women to dwell by themselves at certain seasons for secret causes, and accustoming themselves to grievous mournings and yelling for the dead, all which were usual things among the Israelites. They have, too, a great unkindness for our swine; but I suppose that is because our hogs devour the clams, which are a dainty with them.

* Baron Lahotan writes, that Indian women of Canada purify themselves after travail - thirty days for a male child, and forty for a female; that during the said time they live apart from their husband; that the unmarried brother of the deceased husband marries the widow six months after his decease; and that the outstanding parties for war address the Great Spirit every day till they set off, with sacrifices, songs, and fasting.

* Lerius tells us, that the Indians of Brazil wash themselves ten times a day; and that the husbands have no matrimonial intercourse with their wives till their children are either weaned or grown pretty hardy; which is similar to the custom of these northern Indians, and that of the Israelites ... VIII 373 Supplement

* Lerius ... if a Brazilian wounds another, he is wounded in the same part of the body with equal punishment; limb for limb, or life for life, according to the Mosaic law ... VIII 373 Supplement

* ... the author whose original History of Mexico is preserved in the Royal Library at Madrid was Diego Duran ...

"The consideration of all which circumstances confirms me in my opinion, and the supposition which I entertain, that the people of this country are descended from the ten tribes of Israel ... All doubt having been removed by the authorities cited as to whether these nations are of Hebrew origin and a Jewish race ..." VIII 185, 189, 190

* (Duran cont.) "I likewise believe that in the course of so long a journey as that which they were obliged to take to arrive at this land they must have suffered great hardships; they mention famine, pestilence, thirsts, tempests, wars, and locusts which afflicted them, and hailstones which destroyed the crops which they had sown in the course of their journey, with a thousand other hardships and sufferings, which I recorded in their histories. ... but to believe for a moment that it is not a history taken from the narrative of Scripture, seeing that it so nearly resembles and is so analogous to that which is recorded in the bible, is not what I cannot in any manner persuade myself to do. VIII 192

* ... from the Journal of a Two Month's Tour amongst the Indian Tribes bordering on Pennsylvania, by Dr. Beatty, "and I must own, to my no small surprise, that a number of their customs appear so much to resemble those of the Jews, that it is a great question with me, whether we can expect to find among the Ten Tribes (wherever they are) at this day, all things considered, more of the footsteps of their ancestors than among the different Indian tribes." VIII 376 Supplement

* History of the North-American Indians, and their customs, & c. by James Adair approx. 1750

Argument I
As the Israelites were divided into tribes, and had chiefs, over them, so the Indians divide themselves ...

Argument II
The ceremonies of the Indians in their religious worship are more after the Mosaic institution than of Pagan imitation, which could not be if the majority of old natives were of heathenish descent ...

Argument III
Agreeable to the theocracy or divine government of Israel, the Indians think the Deity to be the immediate head of their state ... The American Indians are so far from being atheists, as some godless Europeans have flattered themselves, to excuse their own infidelity, that they have the great sacred name of God, that describes His divine essence, and by which He manifested himself to Moses, and are firmly persuaded they now live under the immediate government of the Deity. 

Argument IV
As they believe in God, so they firmly believe that there is a class of higher beings (angels), and a future state of existence.

Argument V
The Indian language and dialects appear to have the very idiom and genius of the Hebrew. There was about thirty years ago a remnant of a nation, or subdivided tribe of Indians, called Kanaai; which resembles the Hebrew proper name ... Canaan ... They called the earth Yahkane, because Yah formed it as his footstool, by the power of his word.

Argument VI
They count time after the manner of the Hebrews. They divide the year into spring, summer, autumn, or the fall of the leaf, and winter ...

Argument VII
In conformity to, or after the manner of, the Jews, the Indian Americans have their Prophets, High-priests, and others of a religious order. As the Jews had a sanctum sanctorum, or most holy place, so have all the Indian nations, particularly the Muskohge.

Argument VIII
Their Festivals, Fasts, and Religious Rites have also a great resemblance to those of the Hebrews.

Argument IX
The Hebrews offered Daily Sacrifice, which the prophet Daniel calls Tamid, 'the daily'.

Argument X
The Hebrews had various Ablutions and Anointings, according to the Mosaic ritual; and all the Indian nations constantly observe similar customs from religious motives. Their frequent bathing, or dipping themselves and their children in rivers, even in the severest weather, seems to be as truly Jewish as the other rites and ceremonies ...

Argument XI
The Indians have customs consonant to the Mosaic Laws of Uncleanness ...

Argument XII
Like the Jews, the greatest part of the southern Indians abstain from most things that are, either in themselves or in the general apprehension of mankind, loathsome or unclean ...They reckon all those animals to be unclean, that are eithe carnivorous or live on nast food; as hogs, wolves, panthers, foxes, cats, mice, rats.

Argument XIII
The Indian Marriages, Divorces,, and Punishments of Adultery still retain a strong likeness to the Jewish laws and customs in their points.

Argument XIV
Many other of the Indian Punishments resemble those of the Jews.

Argument XV
The Israelites had cities of Refuge ...
According to the same particular divine law of mercy, each of these Indian nations have either a house or town of refuge ...

Argument XVI
Before the Indians go to War, they have many prepatory ceremonies of purification and fasting, like what is recorded of the Israelites.

Argument XVII
The Indian origin and descent may also in some measure be discerned for their taste for, and kind of, ornaments. The Israelites were fond of wearing beads and other ornaments ...

Argument XVIII
The Indian manner of Curing their Sick is very similar to that of the Jews. They always invoke YO He Wah a considerable space of time before they apply any medicines ...

Argument XIX
The Hebrews have at all times been careful in the Burial of their Dead: to be deprived of it was considered as one of the greatest evils.

Argument XX
The Jewish records tell us, that their women mourned for the loss of their deceased husbands, and were reckoned vile by the civil law, if they married in the space, at least, of ten months after their death. In resemblance to that custom, all the Indian widows, by an established strict penal law, mourn for the loss of their deceased husbands; and among some tribes for the space of three or four years.

Argument XXI
The surviving brother, by the Mosaic law, was to raise seed to a deceased brother who left a widow childless, to perpetuate his name and family, and inherit his goods and estate, or be degraded ...
the Indian custom looks the very same way; yet it is in this as in their law of blood, the eldest brother can redeem ...

Argument XXII
Although other resemblances of the Indian rites and customs to those of the Hebrews might be pointed out, not to seem tedious, I proceed to the last argument of the origin of the Indian Americans, which shall be from their own traditions, from the accounts of the English writers, and from the testimonies which the Spanish writers have given, concerning primitive inhabitants of Peru and Mexico. The Indian tradition says, that their forefathers in very remote ages came from a far distant country, where all the people were of one colour; and that in the process of time they moved eastward to their present settlements. ... because people who have been long separated from the rest of mankind must know their own traditions the best, and could not be deceived in so material and frequently repeated event.

* It deserves to be remarked that the Brazilians, whose manners not withstanding the distance of their respective territories, bore a striking resemblance to those of the North American Indians, are declared by the Portuguese writer, Emanuel de Moraes ... to have presented an exact counterpart to the manners of the Jews, except in their not practising the rite of circumcision ... VIII 385 Supplement

* Piedrahita, in the third chapter of the first book of his History of the Conquest of New Granada, describes the stranger who preached to the Mozcas, or Indians of Bogota,-whom some named Nemquetheba, others Bechicha, and others Zuhe,- as wearing a kind of phylactery on his forehead, in imitation of which the Indians of that province of South America continued to wear roses made of feathers hanging over their eyebrows, until the conquest of the territory by the Spaniards. VI 518

* ... from the thirteenth chapter of the eighth book of Nieremberg's National History, because it proves that the Peruvians refrained from swearing on all ordinary occasions, and like the Jews, were apprehensive of taking the name of God in vain ... VIII 140

* The entire of Garcia's third book of the, Origin of the Indians, treats accordingly the likeness, which in their laws, their, ancestors, their moral qualities and habits, their ceremonies, their sacrifices, their mutual inclination to idolatry, and even in their early history,- the two nations bore to each other ... In the seventh he compares the Hebrew language with some of the American idioms ... VI 235

* Garcia says that the Mexicans were acquainted with the Decalogue, and obeyed most of its precepts.

* ... extract from the Memorial of Bernardino de Carderas, addressed to the king of Spain, will clearly show that, in the opinion of that learned and experienced ecclesiastic, the laws of the Peruvians and many of their rites bore a striking resemblance to those delivered by God to the Jews. VIII 262

* ... the third part of Oviedo's inedited 'Historia General de las Indias,' in which the Inga Guaynacapa is said to have sentenced the entire population, both male and female, of a certain populous district to be deprived of the teeth of their upper jaw, for having committed some crime which provoked his anger. The nature of the crime is not explained; but it was for profaning the religion of Pachacama, who the Peruvians believed to be the sole creator of the universe and the one invisible God ... ... (Kingsborough) it was not unlikely that this judgment was to verify the anathema of David against God's enemies, in the sixth verse of the fifty-eighth Psalm: "Break their teeth, O God, in the north; break out the great teeth of the young lions, O Lord; save me, O my God: for thou hast smitten all mine enemies upon the cheek bone; thou hast broken the teeth of the ungodly. VIII 245

* It deserves to be noticed that Acosta and Torquemada both liken the servitude of the Mexicans under Coxcox, the king of Culhuacan, to that of the bondage of the children of Israel in Egypt; and it would also appear that the above-mentioned king, like Pharaoh, consented rather through fear (as the Mexican annals assert) than any generous motive to their departure from his state. VIII 123 Supplement

* Sahagun affirms that the Mexicans were accustomed to shake off the dust from their feet as a religious ceremony on one of their festivals; and it is extremely probable, that the ceremony had some connexion with ancient Hebrew ... VIII 152

An Ancient Hebrew Inscription in New Mexico      
The standard textbook wisdom that we all learned from grade school on up is that the Americas were discovered by the Europeans either in 1492 by Columbus, or perhaps even a few hundred years earlier by the Vikings. There seems to be an aversion among the establishment historians to even consider the idea that ancient Mediterranean peoples might have traveled to the Americas in the centuries before our era. Except for certain “fringe” scholarship, particularly promoted by Mormon historians, the standard view is considered indisputable. The very idea that “primitive” peoples from Cyprus, Phoenicia, Greece, or Iberia had the sailing sophistication to cross the Atlantic is thought to be improbable if not absurd.

There are a few notable exceptions. Dr. Cyrus Gordon, one of the greatest living historians of ancient Near Eastern civilizations has promoted the idea that such peoples reached the New World for the past several decades. Actually, when one digs around a bit, it turns out that the historical and archaeological evidence is quite impressive. It has been well documented by Barry Fell in his major study, America B.C. (New York: Pocket Books, 1989).

One of the most fascinating sites Dr. Fell surveys is located south of Albuquerque, New Mexico, a few miles west of a little town called Los Lunas. The site has been known as “Mystery Mountain” by the locals for many years. At the foot of a mini-Masada like natural plateau there is an inscription written in paleo-Hebrew. The inscription contains a slightly abridged version of the Decalogue or Ten Commandments. Anyone who is familiar with the Hebrew language, and the well-established ancient Hebrew alphabet used prior to the Common Era, can easily read this inscription.

The question is—how did it get there? Is it a fraud, perpetrated by some pranksters for amusement purposes? If so, it could not be much older than this century since the paleo-Hebrew alphabet was only discovered from archaeological inscriptions in the Middle East over the past 100 years. Or, is it possible that it was put there much earlier, by Jews or Israelites who had settled in the area we know as New Mexico when paleo-Hebrew was in common use—that is in the centuries B.C.E. To even suggest such an idea, for most, is to immediately dismiss it. However, when the Los Lunas inscription is placed in the wider context of an abundant amount of evidence, such as that presented by Dr. Fell, that ancient Mediterranean peoples did visit the New World, it becomes not only plausible but perhaps the only logical explanation for the existence of this text.

In September, 1996 I visited the Los Lunas site with a group of associates for an initial survey of the evidence. I have also interviewed Prof. Frank Hibben, local historian and archaeologist from the University of New Mexico, who is convinced the inscription is ancient and thus authentic. He reports that he first saw the text in 1933. At the time it was covered with lichen and patination and was hardly visible. He was taken to the site by a guide who had seen it as a boy, back in the 1880s. Thus we have eye-witness evidence, going back over a hundred years, that the inscription existed. This alone is impressive, since it is rather preposterous to imagine some pranksters or forgers operating with a knowledge of paleo-Hebrew in the late 1800s, when this ancient alphabet was not even fully known to the scholars.

Associated with the inscription is the mountain itself, which shows evidence of fortification and ancient habitation, whether by native Americans or whomever. The Decalogue inscription is located at the foot of the mountain, on the north, at the only accessible pathway going up. The top of the mountain is a flat plateau with many ruins. The whole area is covered with drawings on rocks called petroglyphs. One of the most interesting of these petroglyphs is what appears to be a sky-map, laid out on a flat rock, recording the positions of the planets and constellations during a solar eclipse. Researcher David Deal, to whom we owe credit for a drawing of the site, has identified the eclipse astronomically as occurring on September 15, 107 B. C. E. I have run that date on a sophisticated computer calendar that does conversions to the ancient Hebrew calendar and surprisingly, that date turns out to fall on Tishri 1st, or Rosh HaShanah of that year—107 B.C.E.! Mr. Deal, who first did the astronomical calculations, was not even aware of this correlation. It might well be the case that the ancient Israelites who lived on this mountain, and left their inscription of the Ten Commandments at the “Gate” of the camp, also recorded an eclipse that happened to fall on a very important day in their sacred calendar.

I have become tentatively convinced that the Los Lunas inscription offers solid evidence that ancient Israelites explored and settled in the New World in the centuries before the Common Era. Whether we can precisely date this encampment, based on Mr. Deal’s astronomical evidence, remains in discussion. However, I have little doubt, nor does Dr. Gordon, who is one of the world experts on ancient inscriptions, that the text itself is authentic and was written sometime B.C.E. Beyond this we can not go at this point in time. What is needed is a rigorous archaeological examination of the whole mountain and its human artifacts. It was obvious to us, even from our brief survey last Fall, that the site has been inhabited by successive peoples. We would have to have coin and pottery evidence to more precisely identify these remains and correlate them, if possible, with the inscription itself. The author is in the process of investigating possibilities for just such an investigation, led by qualified experts in archaeology. In the meantime I would encourage any of our Bulletin readers who are interested in this subject to read Dr. Barry Fell’s book, America B.C., which is readily available in major bookstores.

Summary of the the above text with most remarkable Hebrew traditions of American Indians 

The following passage, translated from the second section of the seventh chapter of the Third Book of -Garcia's, Origin of the Indians, shows that the attention of that learned writer had been drawn to this coincidence: 'In New Spain the word Mesico is found, which as Brother Stephen de Salacar remarks, is Hebrew, and is therefore introduced in the second Psalm, and signifies His anointed ... since the leader who conducted those who peopled Mexico was named Mesi, or as others write Mexi; and the city and nation were afterward called after him, in the same way as we see that many cities, provinces and nations have been named after those who peopled or founded them, or to whom they owed their origin, as we shall presently point out. The word Mesi should be noted as being really Hebrew, and it agrees surprisingly with the name of the chief, head, or captain of the Mexicans.' (Lost Tribe Info note ... according to modern Jewish interpretation, the word, Mesi, may bear a relationship to the Sahagun...alluded, in the set speeches of congratulations which they addressed to each other on the births of their children, to the possibility of His (the Messiah's) being born in their days and being of their race.

The Jews considered the brazen serpent which Moses lifted up in the wilderness as a type of the coming of their future Messiah; and since the Mexicans were so well acquainted with the early history of the Pentateuch, and with the signs and wonders which Moses performed in Egypt by uplifting his rod, which became a serpent, it is probable that they were not ignorant of the history of the brazen serpent, and that Quecalcoatle (which proper name signifies the precious feathered serpent) was so named after the memorable prodigy of the serpent in the wilderness, the feathers perhaps alluding to the rabbinical tradition ...

* It is very extraordinary that the Mexicans should have assigned to the serpent the same quality of superior wisdom as the Jews did, since we read of no other nations except the Jews and the Mexicans who believed in that fact in natural history. VI 356

* throughout the extensive empire of the Ingas, since those arts and inventions which have been the subject of Hebrew legislation, such as battlements on houses, and fringes on garments, were precisely the ones which the Jews who colonized America would have been most likely to have carried over with them to that continent.

 It is a remarkable fact that ancient Hebrew inscriptions have been discovered in the Canary Islands, which is clear proof that the Jews in early ages passed the Pillars of Hercules: there would be nothing therefore improbable in the supposition, that the Jews who embarked from Sicily meditated a voyage over the Atlantic.

The Indians of New Spain did expect a Messiah whom they even named Mexi

 'In New Spain the word Mesico is found, which as Brother Stephen de Salacar remarks, is Hebrew, and is therefore introduced in the second Psalm, and signifies His anointed ... since the leader who conducted those who peopled Mexico was named Mesi, or as others write Mexi; and the city and nation were afterward called after him, in the same way as we see that many cities, provinces and nations have been named after those who peopled or founded them, or to whom they owed their origin, as we shall presently point out. The word Mesi should be noted as being really Hebrew, and it agrees surprisingly with the name of the chief, head, or captain of the Mexicans.'

(Lost Tribe Info note ... according to modern Jewish interpretation, the word, Mesi, may bear a relationship to the word Moshiach)

A remnant of a nation, or subdivided tribe of Indians (from  the Americas), called Kanaai; which resembles the Hebrew proper name ... Canaan ...

Te Ua Haumēne

Of Taranaki and Te Āti Awa descent, Te Ua was born in Waiaua, South Taranaki, in the early 1820s. In 1862 he established a new religion, Hauhau, based on the principle of pai mārire – goodness and peace. But most settlers viewed Hauhau as a fundamentally anti-European religion, synonymous with ‘violence, fanaticism and barbarism’.

Te Ua was influenced by Christian missionaries after being captured by Waikato Māori in 1826 and taken as a slave to Kawhia. Here he became familiar with the New Testament, especially the Book of Revelation. He was baptised by the Wesleyan missionary John Whiteley. He returned to Taranaki around 1840 where he served at the Wesleyan mission station at Waimate.



























By the 1850s he was actively involved in Māori opposition to land sales. He fought against the government after the Taranaki war broke out in 1860, becoming a strong supporter of the Māori King movement. Te Ua later baptised the second Māori King – giving him the name Tāwhiao.

In 1862 Te Ua had a vision in which the archangel Gabriel instructed him to lead his people in 'casting off the yoke of the Pākehā'. The birthright of Israelites (the Māori people) would be restored in the land of Canaan (New Zealand), and following a day of deliverance the unrighteous would perish.

The organisation and teaching of the church was set out in 'Ua rongo pai' (Ua gospel). He called his church Hauhau because Te Hau, the spirit of God in the image of wind, carried the niu (news) or prophecy to the faithful. Te Ua considered his teaching to be Christianity ‘purified of missionary error’. In 1864 Te Ua took the spiritual name Haumēne or ‘wind man’. Pai Mārire and Hauhau became interchangeable labels for this new religion.

A 'Niu pole' with three flags was a prominent aspect of Hauhau ceremonies. The 'Riki' flag or pennant was a war flag, while the 'Ruru' flag represented peace. The relative positions of these flags on the Niu pole indicated whether the spirit behind the gathering was peaceful or hostile. A third flag represented the priest conducting the ceremony.

In April 1864 the preserved heads of six British soldiers killed in an ambush at Ahuahu in Taranaki were presented to Te Ua. He accepted these as a symbol of the victory of the righteous. Fighting involving Hauhau followers at Te Morere and Moutoa Island raised the fears of many Europeans. Governor Grey had declared Hauhau practices 'repugnant to all humanity' and declared that it was to be suppressed by force if necessary.

Against a backdrop of war and land confiscations Hauhau disciples travelled around the North Island carrying the message from the west coast to the east. Civil wars broke out as factions within some iwi opposed the new religion, believing that it challenged their sovereignty. The killing of the Anglican missionary Carl Völkner at Opotiki in March 1865 by Hauhau followers caused outrage in the settler population as well as sparking a civil war on the East Coast that lasted until 1872.

At the beginning of 1866 a military campaign was mounted by the government to destroy any remaining Taranaki resistance. Te Ua signed a declaration of allegiance at Opunake before submitting to Major General Trevor Chute in early February. He was immediately taken into custody. He was eventually placed under house arrest at Grey’s home on Kawau Island. This move was similar to that employed against Te Rauparaha during Grey’s first term as Governor in the 1840s. The intention on both occasions was to crush the mana of the man concerned.

In June Te Ua was allowed to return to Taranaki. His health was in decline and he died in October 1866 at Oeo.

Despite the militancy of many of Pai Mārire adherents, which threatened to overshadow Te Ua’s teachings, he remains a significant Māori religious leader. He enabled Māori Christianity to break from its dependence on the theology and ritual of the missionary church. The tradition of biblical prophecy was drawn on by the Māori religious leaders that were to follow.

As Gautama Buddha, the Israelite, had 5 disciples so had Te Ua Haumēne the Maori.

World Awakening: Greek Roadblocks or Hebraic Roads

Waola worldview has more than accidental Hebraic overtones. Mass meetings for cultural and religious observations date back into their primitive days, including gala feasting, marching and festive dances. Extended family togetherness, communal sharing, insight into the spirit world and sensitivity to a benevolent God in the heavens was embedded in their mindset long before the westerner ever stumbled onto their scene. The million-plus congregation of the wilderness Tabernacle, the gala 3 times-yearly feasts in Jerusalem or pressing multitudes of Galilee also invoked a connection. Hebraic living-faith orientation appears a tad more popular in Melanesia than say in Minneapolis or Montreal.

much Western biblical scholarship missed a massive amount of Scripture that points to physical Israel reborn, but interwoven with the Great Commission, the final re-gathering of Israel is a most unique last-call tool to the nations.  Fortunately this has hardly been lost on Papua New Guinea and their fellow Melanesian islanders. If even the Jews are headed home, it’s high time for everyone else to scramble on board!

Gomer and Hosea

Apparently most of the people of the lost ten tribes emerged from their Assyrian captivity north of the Tigris river to begin some extensive wanderings among the nations. They came out from the shadow of the Caucasus Mountains. Some went across the Caucasus into the steppes of Russia. Others went east even as far as India and Japan. Nuclear physicist turned missionary Victor Schlatter discovered significant connections to lost Israel among the islanders of southeast Asia. See this article from South Pacific Island Ministries.


But the main drift was towards the west in the Celtic flows into Europe. There is good evidence that in spite of being dislodged from the Holy Land the lost tribes and are still in tribal/national groupings. Yes, perhaps they may have been scattered. But perhaps they are now being regathered and are now actually clumped together as nations. The prophet Micah said that YHVH-God would in fact regather all of Israel. (Micah 2:12) Could it be that the lost ten tribes have been brought back together after 27 centuries? Are the tribes like bands of colors moving together in a paper chromatography? God's people are are clearly being gathered. And it would seem that they are being pushed along by their histories. Are they also being gathered together by the drawing which comes from their God-given spiritual character?

Gogodala People

Gogodala is the name of an ethnic/language group from the Middle Fly District of the Western Province of Papua New Guinea, one of about a thousand different cultures that make up Papua New Guinea, each with its own languages and lifestyles.

The Gogodala are a tribe of approximately 25,000, located in 33 villages in Papua New Guinea. Their territory extends from the Aramia River (The Israelites were neighboring Aram & spoke Aramean for a while. Did Israelite ancestors of the Gogodalas name this river? SuKi, part of the name of their language group, has the consonants of Isaac. goGoDala itself has the consonants of GaD. Are they Gadites?) to the lower Fly River, and is the most populous Local-Level Government area in the province. Their territory is divided up into West, East and Fly areas and the Gogodala occupy mostly the flat terrain and the floodplain areas.

                                                   Israelite Papuan tribes: Gogodala & Bine

Since the law remains tough to enforce, cultures rely mainly on religion to establish norms and customs. The main religion in Gogodala tribes is that of Christianity. While originally there was a very strong opposition to the establishment of the churches, because of missionaries and the creation of the Evangelical Church of Papua, in 2003 over 90% of the 25,000 Gogodala claimed to be Christian. Ever since it’s establishment, Christianity has caused immense changes on the Gogodala.

Missionaries determined that objects and dances that were associated with male initiatory processes, mainly those associated with Aida ceremonies, were not suitable for Christianity. Thus, missionaries and Gogodala Christians traveled to neighboring villages and emphasized that these traditions and objects be banned and destroyed.